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      Importance of Hematoma Removal Ratio in Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Surgery with Intrasylvian Hematoma

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysm with intrasylvian hematoma usually accompanied by progressive cerebral swelling with poorer outcomes. The authors present characteristics and importance of intrasylvian hematoma removal in the aneurysm surgery.

          Materials and Methods

          From 2012 February to 2014 March, 24 aneurysm surgeries for ruptured MCA aneurysms with intrasylvian hematoma were performed in the authors' clinic. The patients were classified according to three groups. Group A included patients who underwent decompressive craniectomy within a few days after aneurysm surgery due to progressive cerebral swelling, group B included patients for whom decompression was not necessary, and group C included patients who showed severe cerebral swelling on admission and decompressive craniectomy and aneurysm surgery in one stage.

          Results

          The mean hematoma volume on admission was 28.56 mL, 24.96 mL, and 66.78 mL for groups A, B and C, respectively. Removal of a larger amount of hematoma was observed on postoperative computerized tomography scan in groups B and C (63.2% and 59.0%) compared with group A (33.4%). Although no statistical difference was found between group A and group B ( p = 0.115), it tends to show the lesser amount of hematoma removed, the more likely cerebral swelling will progress.

          Conclusion

          The lesser amount of hematoma in ruptured MCA aneurysm with intrasylvian hematoma tends to show benign clinical course than larger amounts. But, even if the hematoma is not easily removed in the operation, we suggest the other procedures such as continuous external catheter drainage of hematoma to avoid unnecessary coagulation or brain retraction.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The ABCs of measuring intracerebral hemorrhage volumes.

          Hemorrhage volume is a powerful predictor of 30-day mortality after spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We compared a bedside method of measuring CT ICH volume with measurements made by computer-assisted planimetric image analysis. The formula ABC/2 was used, where A is the greatest hemorrhage diameter by CT, B is the diameter 90 degrees to A, and C is the approximate number of CT slices with hemorrhage multiplied by the slice thickness. The ICH volumes for 118 patients were evaluated in a mean of 38 seconds and correlated with planimetric measurements (R2 = 9.6). Interrater and intrarater reliability were excellent, with an intraclass correlation of .99 for both. We conclude that ICH volume can be accurately estimated in less than 1 minute with the simple formula ABC/2.
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            Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.

            In 47 cases of verified ruptured saccular aneurysm, we investigated the relationship of the amount and distribution of subarachnoid blood detected by computerized tomography to the later development of cerebral vasospasm. When the subarachnoid blood was not detected or was distributed diffusely, severe vasospasm was almost never encounters (1 of 18 cases). In the presence of subarachnoid blood clots larger than 5 X 3 mm (measured on the reproduced images) or layers of blood 1 mm or more thick in fissures and vertical cisterns, severe spasm followed almost invariably (23 of 24 cases). There was an almost exact correspondence between the site of the major subarachnoid blood clots and the location of severe vasospasm. Every patient with severe vasospasm manifested delayed symptoms and signs. Excellent correlation existed between the particular artery in vasospasm and the delayed clinical syndrome. Severe vasospasm involved the anterior cerebral artery in 20 cases and the middle cerebral artery in only 14. As the grading system used is partly subjective, the findings should be regarded as preliminary. The results, if confirmed, indicate that blood localized in the subarachnoid space in sufficient amount at specific sites is the only important etiological factor in vasospasm. It should be possible to identify patients in jeopardy from vasospasm and institute early preventive measures. (Neurosurgery, 6: 1--9, 1980)
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              Hemorrhagic transformation after ischemic stroke in animals and humans.

              Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a common complication of ischemic stroke that is exacerbated by thrombolytic therapy. Methods to better prevent, predict, and treat HT are needed. In this review, we summarize studies of HT in both animals and humans. We propose that early HT ( 18 to 24 hours after stroke) that relates to ischemia activation of brain proteases (MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and endogenous tissue plasminogen activator), neuroinflammation, and factors that promote vascular remodeling (vascular endothelial growth factor and high-moblity-group-box-1). Processes that mediate BBB repair and reduce HT risk are discussed, including transforming growth factor beta signaling in monocytes, Src kinase signaling, MMP inhibitors, and inhibitors of reactive oxygen species. Finally, clinical features associated with HT in patients with stroke are reviewed, including approaches to predict HT by clinical factors, brain imaging, and blood biomarkers. Though remarkable advances in our understanding of HT have been made, additional efforts are needed to translate these discoveries to the clinic and reduce the impact of HT on patients with ischemic stroke.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
                J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
                JCEN
                Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery
                Korean Society of Cerebrovascular Surgeons; Society of Korean Endovascular Neurosurgeons
                2234-8565
                2287-3139
                March 2017
                31 March 2017
                : 19
                : 1
                : 5-11
                Affiliations
                Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Inha University, Incheon, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Yu Shik Shim. Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Inha University, 27 Inhang-ro, Jung-gu, Incheon 22332, Korea. Tel: 82-32-890-2370, Fax: 82-32-890-2370, nsshim60@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.7461/jcen.2017.19.1.5
                5426193
                © 2017 Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neurosurgery

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Inha University, CrossRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100002635;
                Categories
                Original Article

                Surgery

                surgery, intrasylvian hematoma, aneurysm

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