Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) plays an important role in atherosclerosis through initiation of endothelial inflammation response. Paeoniflorin (PEF), isolated from the dry root of Paeonia, has been reported to exert an anti-inflammatory effect, but the exact mechanism is not fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of PEF on LPC-induced inflammatory factor production and the underlying mechanisms. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), different concentrations (1, 10 or 100 µmol/l) of PEF were added 2 h prior to exposure to LPC (10 mg/l) for 24 h. The results showed that PEF significantly inhibited LPC-induced inflammatory factor production. In addition, PEF was also able to suppress the enhanced high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) expression and release, upregulated expression of receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE), Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4, and increased nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity induced by LPC. Our results suggest that PEF suppresses LPC-induced inflammatory factor production through inhibition of the HMGB1-RAGE/TLR-2/TLR-4-NF-κB pathway.