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      Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

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          Abstract

          A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion.

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          Most cited references 38

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          The Theory of Planned Behavior: A Review of Its Applications to Health-related Behaviors

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            Physical activity assessment methodology in the Five-City Project.

            Previous measures of physical activity for epidemiologic studies were considered inadequate to meet the needs of a community-based health education trial. Therefore, new methods of quantifying the physical activity habits of communities were developed which are practical for large health surveys, provide information on the distribution of activity habits in the population, can detect changes in activity over time, and can be compared with other epidemiologic studies of physical activity. Independent self-reports of vigorous activity (at least 6 metabolic equivalents (METs) ), moderate activity (3-5 METs), and total energy expenditure (kilocalories per day) are described, and the physical activity practices of samples of California cities are presented. Relationships between physical activity measures and age, education, occupation, ethnicity, marital status, and body mass index are analyzed, and the reliabilities of the three activity indices are reported. The new assessment procedure is contrasted with nine other measures of physical activity used in community surveys.
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              Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

              Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study). The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI) and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively), whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%). The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95), but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of participants who correctly perceived their body size was high (53.3%) and gross misperception was seldom found, with most cases selecting only one silhouette below (42.7%) or above (2.6%) their actual BMI. Conclusion We found no association between body image disturbance and subsequent depression in a cohort of university graduates in Spain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
                The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
                BioMed Central
                1479-5868
                2012
                2 March 2012
                : 9
                : 20
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa K1N 6N5, Canada
                [2 ]School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
                [3 ]Faculty of Human Kinetics, Technical University of Lisbon, 1495-710 Cruz Quebrada, Portugal
                Article
                1479-5868-9-20
                10.1186/1479-5868-9-20
                3353256
                22385751
                Copyright ©2012 Fortier et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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