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      Testicular-self examination among Nigerian adolescent secondary school boys: knowledge, attitudes and practices

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          Testicular-self examination (TSE) is a cheap and easy-to-perform procedure for early detection of testicular cancer but data on this subject is lacking in Nigeria, particularly among male adolescents.


          To assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of testicular-self examination among secondary school boys.


          Knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to TSE were assessed, using anonymous structured self-administered questionnaires in a sample of 540 secondary school boys aged between 15 and 20 years.


          Nearly all (98.7%) the male students had never heard of TSE and had hardly practiced TSE. Of the 7 students who admitted examining their testicles, none did so at the recommended level (10 or more times per year) and did not follow the standard procedure for TSE. Nearly half (47.2%) of the participants had a positive intention to start performing TSE regularly after hearing of TSE (through the questionnaire and subsequent teaching on the subject).


          The level of knowledge, practice and the rating of the importance of TSE are all very low among adolescent secondary school boys in Benin City, suggesting that these students are unaware of the value of this personal health surveillance tool. The students demonstrated a positive intention to start performing TSE regularly after hearing of TSE (through the questionnaire and subsequent teaching on the subject).

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          Most cited references 18

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          Increasing incidence of testicular cancer worldwide: a review.

          Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy in 20 to 34-year-old men. Numerous publications have shown an increase in the incidence of testis cancer in the last 40 years with substantial differences among countries. We evaluated worldwide variations in testicular cancer incidence and compared trends in different regions in the world. We reviewed 441 studies provided by a MEDLINE search using the key words testis/testicular, cancer/tumor and incidence that were published between 1980 and 2002. From these articles we selected only those devoted to testis cancer incidence and of them only the most recent studies from each country or region. Nevertheless, articles using the same data base but providing new and additional information, for example differences among ethnic groups or controversial explanations for trends, were also retained. We selected 30 articles and analyzed their methodological approach and main results. Worldwide we observed a clear trend toward an increased TC incidence in the last 30 years in the majority of industrialized countries in North America, Europe and Oceania. Nevertheless, surprising differences in incidence rates were seen between neighboring countries (Finland 2.5/100,000 cases versus Denmark 9.2/100,000) as well as among regions of the same country (2.8 to 7.9/100,000 according to various regional French registers). In addition, substantial differences in the TC incidence and trends were observed among ethnic groups. The increase in the TC incidence was significantly associated with a birth cohort effect in the United States and in European countries. To date except for cryptorchidism no evident TC risk factor has been clearly demonstrated, although the environmental hypothesis with a key role of endocrine disrupters has been put forward by several groups. Such a recent increase in the TC rate in most industrialized countries should lead urologists and andrologists to give more attention to testicular cancer symptoms in adolescents and young adults. In a public health perspective further research using cases collected through national and regional population based registers and case-control studies must be strongly encouraged if we wish to be able to assess future trends in TC incidence rates and also identify risk factors.
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            Knowledge and practice of breast-self examination among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, northwestern Nigeria.

            Carcinoma of the breast is an important public health problem in Nigeria and studies have reported low levels of awareness and practice of breast self examination as an important method of prevention. Breast self examination is a cost-effective method of early detection of cancer of the breast especially in resource poor countries. We assessed knowledge and practice of breast-self examination (BSE) among female undergraduate students of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. In this study, knowledge and practice of BSE were examined among 221 female students aged 16-28 years old studying at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria using self administered questionnaires. It was found that despite nearly three quarter of the respondents (87.7%) had heard of BSE, only 19.0% of them were performing this examination monthly. Regarding the sources of information about BSE among respondents, media was found to be most common followed by health workers accounting for 45.5% and 32.2% respectively. Regular performance of BSE was significantly correlated with duration of stay in the University (X2 = 81.9, df = 3, P 2 = 17.4, df = 2, P CONCLUSION: We observed a disparity between high levels of knowledge of BSE compared to a low level of practice. Public health education using the media could significantly reduce the knowledge-practice gap and early detection of breast lump.
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              Testicular self-examination (TSE) among Dutch young men aged 15-19: determinants of the intention to practice TSE.

              The present study analyzed what determinants are important to describe and explain the intention of testicular self-examination (TSE) for young men aged 15-19 attending senior high school (response rate 80%, n = 274). The questionnaire assessed determinants, including knowledge, attitude (positive and negative consequences, anticipated regret, and moral obligation), social influence (social norm, social support and modeling) and self-efficacy. Knowledge of testicular cancer and TSE was very low. Only 2% of the subjects reported regularly performing TSE. After hearing of TSE (through the questionnaire), 41% of all young men had a positive intention to start performing TSE regularly. The various intention groups (positive, neutral and negative) differed significantly on almost all of the determinants. Multiple regression analysis showed that young men who where anxious about TSE and those who were not anxious had different determinants explaining the variance in the intention to perform TSE regularly (R2 = 41-57%). Differences in determinants of intention between young men who are anxious about TSE and young men who are not can be used to design health education interventions that may therefore be more effective for these different subgroups.

                Author and article information

                J Prev Med Hyg
                J Prev Med Hyg
                Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
                Pacini Editore SpA
                September 2013
                : 54
                : 3
                : 163-166
                Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr Alphonsus N. Onyiriuka, Department of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, PMB 1111, Benin City, Nigeria - E-mail: alpndiony@ 123456yahoo.com
                © Copyright by Pacini Editore SpA, Pisa, Italy

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way. For details, please refer to http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

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