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      The use of capillary electrophoresis for DNA polymorphism analysis.

      Molecular Biotechnology
      DNA Mutational Analysis, instrumentation, methods, Electrophoresis, Capillary, Equipment Design, Microchemistry, Polymerase Chain Reaction, Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational, Sequence Analysis, DNA

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          Capillary electrophoresis has advanced enormously over the last 10 yr as a tool for DNA sequencing, driven by the human and other major genome projects and by the need for rapid electrophoresis-based DNA diagnostic tests. The common need of these analyses is a platform providing very high throughput, high-quality data, and low process costs. These demands have led to capillary electrophoresis machines with multiple capillaries providing highly parallel analyses, to new electrophoresis matrices, to highly sensitive spectrofluorometers, and to brighter, spectrally distinct fluorescent dyes with which to label DNA. Capillary devices have also been engineered onto microchip formats, on which both the amount of sample required for analysis and the speed of analysis are increased by an order of magnitude. This review examines the advances made in capillary and chip-based microdevices and in the different DNA-based assays developed for mutation detection and genotype analysis using capillary electrophoresis. The automation of attendant processes such as for DNA sample preparation, PCR, and analyte purification are also reviewed. Together, these technological developments provide the throughput demanded by the large genome-sequencing projects.

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