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      Brunner’s gland hyperplasia: an unusual cause of hemorrhagic shock

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          Abstract

          Brunner’s gland hyperplasia is a very rare lesion of the duodenum, which is usually asymptomatic and diagnosed incidentally during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. It can cause gastrointestinal bleeding but hemorrhagic shock is a rare clinical presentation of Brunner’s gland hyperplasia. The authors present a case of a patient with hemorrhagic shock due to a bleeding Brunner’s gland hyperplasia, treated by urgent laparotomy and polypectomy.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Brunner's gland hamartomas: clinical presentation and pathological features of 27 cases.

          The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical presentation, pathological features, and outcome of a series of patients with Brunner's gland hamartomas. We reviewed the clinical and pathological features of 27 patients who presented with Brunner's gland hamartomas, and we obtained follow-up information. Patients (12 men and 15 women) presented predominantly in the fifth and sixth decades of life either with gastrointestinal hemorrhage (n = 10) or obstructive symptoms (n = 10); there were also patients whose tumors were discovered as an incidental finding (n = 7). The tumors were generally pedunculated, were located in the first portion of the duodenum, and were in the range of diameter from 1 to 6 cm. Histologically, the hamartomas were characterized by the presence of nondysplastic, lobulated Brunner's glands with intervening bands of fibrous tissue and variable adipose and lymphoid tissue. Focal sclerosis was found in 93% of the hamartomas, possibly mimicking an adenocarcinoma. Whether managed surgically (24 patients) or endoscopically (three patients), the outcome was uniformly favorable. After a median period of 7-yr-follow-up, no tumors recurred, and no additional morbidity was identified. Brunner's gland hamartomas are rare duodenal tumors occurring in middle age that present either with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, obstructive symptoms, or as an incidental finding. Surgical or endoscopic excision is uncomplicated, and the long-term outcome is favorable.
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            Malignant potential in a Brunner's gland hamartoma.

            Brunner's gland hamartomas are rare tumours of the duodenum. These lesions have previously been described as being benign, with no malignant potential. A case report is presented of a Brunner's gland hamartoma, whose histology revealed a focus of well marked epithelial dysplasia. This case suggests a dysplastic stage in the natural history of Brunner's gland hamartoma, and questions the malignant potential of these lesions.
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              Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with Brunner's gland adenoma.

              Histopathologic and clinical data strongly suggest a causal relation between Helicobacter pylori infection and gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, or both. However, little has been written about the potential association between H. pylori infection and Brunner's gland adenoma. Therefore, we carried out a prospective study to determine the presence of H. pylori infection among patients with Brunner's gland adenoma. From November 1996 till October 1999, 19100 patients who had undergone upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at two clinical centers in Zagreb, Croatia, were candidates for participation in the study. Brunner's gland adenoma was diagnosed on the basis of histologic samples taken from the polyp (four patients) or after the entire polyp was made available upon endoscopic removal (three patients). When all endoscopic examinations had been performed, biopsy samples were taken from the antrum and body of the stomach, so that gastritis could be classified and H. pylori determined by histology. Biopsy samples were also taken from the duodenal bulb to verify duodenitis. Two other samples were taken from the antrum for rapid urease test. The patients were considered positive for H. pylori when both histology and rapid urease test were positive. Brunner's gland adenoma was diagnosed in seven patients (five women and two men; median age, 49 yrs). Five (71%) patients with diagnosed Brunner's gland adenoma had concurrent H. pylori infection. Duodenitis associated with gastric metaplasia was observed in six patients. Complete eradication of H. pylori was achieved in only two patients. Symptoms disappeared or markedly diminished in all patients with significant improvement during therapy or immediately upon endoscopic removal of the polyp. Although limited by a very small number of patients, our results suggest that concurrent H. pylori infection is very common in patients with Brunner's gland adenoma. However, the role of H. pylori infection in the pathogenesis and development of Brunner's gland hyperplasia remains unclear.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Surg Case Rep
                J Surg Case Rep
                jscr
                jscr
                Journal of Surgical Case Reports
                JSCR Publishing Ltd
                2042-8812
                1 May 2011
                May 2011
                : 2011
                : 5
                : 2
                Affiliations
                Hospital S. João, Porto, Portugal
                Article
                10.1093/jscr/2011.5.2
                3649241
                © JSCR
                Categories
                Upper GI Surgery
                0160

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