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      Hemodynamic Behavior During Hemodialysis: Effects of Dialysate Concentrations of Bicarbonate and Potassium

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Ultrafiltration that occurs during hemodialysis (HD) promotes profound alterations in a relatively short period of time. The dialysate content of bicarbonate (DBic) and potassium (DK) may have impact over intradialytic hemodynamics, which goes beyond ultrafiltration, and its impact was evaluated in a prospective cohort. Methods: 30 patients under HD were submitted to hemodynamic assessment (HA) at the beginning and at the end of HD sessions, through a non-invasive method. Serum minus dialysate potassium concentration was expressed as K-Gap. Cardiac index (CI) and peripheral arterial resistance (PAR) variation (post-HD minus pre-HD) were expressed as ΔCI and ΔPAR. Dialysate content of sodium and calcium were expressed as DNa and DCa, respectively. Results: Mean DNa, DK and DBic were, respectively, 136.4 ± 1.1, 2.1 ± 0.6 and 38.2 ± 2.1 mEq/L. In 15 patients, DCa was >1.5 mmol/L and in the other 15 patients ≤ 1.5 mmol/L. The K-Gap ranged from 1.4 to 5.1 mEq/l (median 3.0 mEq/L). There was a reduction in post-HD CI and systolic blood pressure (ΔCI = -0.72l/min/m<sup>2</sup> and -11.3±15.1mmHg, respectively, p<0.001 for both). Conversely, PAR increased (ΔPAR = 272dyn.s/cm<sup>5</sup>, p<0.001). Lower post-HD CI was was associated to higher DBic (p=0.0013) and lower K-Gap (p=0.026). In multivariate analysis, ΔCI was dependent on DBic and K-Gap, whereas ΔPAR was dependent on dialysate calcium during HD. Conclusion: We confirmed that Na and Ca dialysate content exerts and important role on hemodynamic during HD. In addition, our findings pointed out that higher dialysate concentrations of bicarbonate and potassium promote lower cardiac performance at the end of hemodialysis session.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Importance of normohydration for the long-term survival of haemodialysis patients.

          Fluid overload and hypertension are among the most important risk factors for haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of fluid overload for the survival of HD patients by using a selected reference population from Tassin. A positively selected HD population (n = 50) from Tassin (Lyon-France) was used as a reference for fluid status and all-cause mortality. This population was compared to one dialysis centre from Giessen (Germany) which was separated into a non-hyperhydrated (n = 123) and a hyperhydrated (n = 35) patient group. The hydration status (ΔHS) of all patients was objectively measured with whole-body bioimpedance spectroscopy in 2003. All-cause mortality was analysed after a 6.5-year follow-up. Most of the reference patients from Tassin were normohydrated (ΔHS = 0.25 ± 1.15 L) at the start of the HD session. The hydration status of the Tassin patients was not different to the non-hyperhydrated Giessen patients (ΔHS = 0.8 ± 1.1 L) but significantly lower than in the hyperhydrated Giessen group (ΔHS = 3.5 ± 1.2 L). Multivariate adjusted all-cause mortality was significantly increased in the hyperhydrated patient group (hazard ratio = 3.41)- no difference in mortality could be observed between the Tassin and the non-hyperhydrated group from Giessen-even considering the fact that Tassin patients presented a significantly lower blood pressure. Fluid overload has a very high predictive value for all-cause mortality and seems to be one of the major killers in the HD population. Patients might strongly benefit from active management of fluid overload.
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            Review of muscle wasting associated with chronic kidney disease.

            Muscle wasting increases the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has been attributed to malnutrition. In most patients, this is an incorrect diagnosis because simply feeding more protein aggravates uremia. Instead, there are complex mechanisms that stimulate loss of skeletal muscle, involving activation of mediators that stimulate the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Identified mediators of muscle protein breakdown include inflammation, metabolic acidosis, angiotensin II, and neural and hormonal factors that cause defects in insulin/insulin-like growth factor I (IFG-I) intracellular signaling processes. Abnormalities in insulin/IGF-I signaling activate muscle protein degradation in the UPS and caspase-3, a protease that disrupts the complex structure of muscle proteins to provide substrates for the UPS. During the cleavage of muscle proteins, caspase-3 leaves behind a characteristic 14-kD actin fragment in the insoluble fraction of muscle, and characterization of this fragment identifies the presence of muscle catabolism. Thus, it could become a marker of excessive muscle wasting, providing a method for early detection of muscle wasting. Another consequence of activation of caspase-3 in muscle is stimulation of the activity of the proteasome, which increases the degradation of muscle proteins. Treatment strategies for blocking muscle wasting include correction of metabolic acidosis, which can suppress muscle protein losses in patients with CKD who are or are not being treated by dialysis. Correcting acidosis also improves bone metabolism in CKD and hence should be a goal of therapy. Exercise training is a potentially beneficial approach, but more information is needed to optimize exercise regimens. Replacing testosterone deficits can improve muscle mass in men, but dosing and side effects in women have not been adequately tested. Although insulin resistance occurs early in the course of CKD, there are no effective means of correcting it. Consequently, new therapies that can safely suppress muscle wasting are needed.
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              Role of potassium in regulating blood flow and blood pressure.

              Unlike sodium, potassium is vasoactive; for example, when infused into the arterial supply of a vascular bed, blood flow increases. The vasodilation results from hyperpolarization of the vascular smooth muscle cell subsequent to potassium stimulation by the ion of the electrogenic Na+-K+ pump and/or activating the inwardly rectifying Kir channels. In the case of skeletal muscle and brain, the increased flow sustains the augmented metabolic needs of the tissues. Potassium ions are also released by the endothelial cells in response to neurohumoral mediators and physical forces (such as shear stress) and contribute to the endothelium-dependent relaxations, being a component of endothelium-derived hyperpolarization factor-mediated responses. Dietary supplementation of potassium can lower blood pressure in normal and some hypertensive patients. Again, in contrast to NaCl restriction, the response to potassium supplementation is slow to appear, taking approximately 4 wk. Such supplementation reduces the need for antihypertensive medication. "Salt-sensitive" hypertension responds particularly well, perhaps, in part, because supplementation with potassium increases the urinary excretion of sodium chloride. Potassium supplementation may even reduce organ system complications (e.g., stroke).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                December 2014
                23 November 2014
                : 39
                : 5
                : 490-496
                Affiliations
                aNephrology Division, University of São Paulo, School of Medicine; bMedicine Master Degree Program, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE), São Paulo, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Rosilene M Elias, M.D., Ph.D., Nephrology Division, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255,, 7º andar, Cerqueira Cesar, CEP 05403-000, São Paulo, SP (Brazil), Tel. +55-11-2661 7165, Fax +55-11-2661 7683, E-Mail rosilenemotta@hotmail.com
                Article
                368459 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:490-496
                10.1159/000368459
                25532082
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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