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      A Retrospective Observational Study of Anlotinib in Patients with Platinum-Resistant or Platinum-Refractory Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Anlotinib, an oral small-molecular tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) on tumor angiogenesis and growth, has a wide spectrum of inhibitory effects on targets such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2/3 (VEGFR2/3), etc. The efficacy and safety of anlotinib in the treatment of platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer were evaluated.

          Patients and Methods

          Patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer that treated with anlotinib in the Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University from May 2018 to March 2020 were included. Medical records were reviewed in terms of objective response, survival outcomes, and safety.

          Results

          A total of 38 patients were analyzed. The median progression-free survival and the median overall survival were 7.7 months (95% CI: 6.7–8.7) and 16.5 months (95% CI: 13.3–19.7), respectively. About 17 patients received anlotinib monotherapy, and the median progression-free survival was 7.7 months (95% CI: 6.3–9.1). A total of 19 cases received anlotinib plus chemotherapy with a median progression-free survival of 8.0 months (95% CI: 4.8–11.2). A total of 2 cases received anlotinib plus anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab, and 1 case had partial response, the other progressive disease. The objective response rate was 42.1% while the disease control rate was 86.8%. A total of 5 patients experienced dose reduction from 12 mg to 10 mg because of adverse effects. The most common adverse effects were hypertension (31.6%), fatigue (28.9%), anorexia (26.3%) and hand-foot syndrome (23.7%). No treatment-related deaths were recorded.

          Conclusion

          Anlotinib produced moderate improvements in progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer. It indicates that anlotinib maybe a new treatment option for patients with platinum-resistant or platinum-refractory ovarian cancer.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Cancer statistics, 2018

            Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data, available through 2014, were collected by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program; the National Program of Cancer Registries; and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data, available through 2015, were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2018, 1,735,350 new cancer cases and 609,640 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Over the past decade of data, the cancer incidence rate (2005-2014) was stable in women and declined by approximately 2% annually in men, while the cancer death rate (2006-2015) declined by about 1.5% annually in both men and women. The combined cancer death rate dropped continuously from 1991 to 2015 by a total of 26%, translating to approximately 2,378,600 fewer cancer deaths than would have been expected if death rates had remained at their peak. Of the 10 leading causes of death, only cancer declined from 2014 to 2015. In 2015, the cancer death rate was 14% higher in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) than non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) overall (death rate ratio [DRR], 1.14; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.15), but the racial disparity was much larger for individuals aged <65 years (DRR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.29-1.32) compared with those aged ≥65 years (DRR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.06-1.09) and varied substantially by state. For example, the cancer death rate was lower in NHBs than NHWs in Massachusetts for all ages and in New York for individuals aged ≥65 years, whereas for those aged <65 years, it was 3 times higher in NHBs in the District of Columbia (DRR, 2.89; 95% CI, 2.16-3.91) and about 50% higher in Wisconsin (DRR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.56-2.02), Kansas (DRR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.25-1.81), Louisiana (DRR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.38-1.60), Illinois (DRR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.39-1.57), and California (DRR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.38-1.54). Larger racial inequalities in young and middle-aged adults probably partly reflect less access to high-quality health care. CA Cancer J Clin 2018;68:7-30. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
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              New response evaluation criteria in solid tumours: revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1).

              Assessment of the change in tumour burden is an important feature of the clinical evaluation of cancer therapeutics: both tumour shrinkage (objective response) and disease progression are useful endpoints in clinical trials. Since RECIST was published in 2000, many investigators, cooperative groups, industry and government authorities have adopted these criteria in the assessment of treatment outcomes. However, a number of questions and issues have arisen which have led to the development of a revised RECIST guideline (version 1.1). Evidence for changes, summarised in separate papers in this special issue, has come from assessment of a large data warehouse (>6500 patients), simulation studies and literature reviews. HIGHLIGHTS OF REVISED RECIST 1.1: Major changes include: Number of lesions to be assessed: based on evidence from numerous trial databases merged into a data warehouse for analysis purposes, the number of lesions required to assess tumour burden for response determination has been reduced from a maximum of 10 to a maximum of five total (and from five to two per organ, maximum). Assessment of pathological lymph nodes is now incorporated: nodes with a short axis of 15 mm are considered measurable and assessable as target lesions. The short axis measurement should be included in the sum of lesions in calculation of tumour response. Nodes that shrink to <10mm short axis are considered normal. Confirmation of response is required for trials with response primary endpoint but is no longer required in randomised studies since the control arm serves as appropriate means of interpretation of data. Disease progression is clarified in several aspects: in addition to the previous definition of progression in target disease of 20% increase in sum, a 5mm absolute increase is now required as well to guard against over calling PD when the total sum is very small. Furthermore, there is guidance offered on what constitutes 'unequivocal progression' of non-measurable/non-target disease, a source of confusion in the original RECIST guideline. Finally, a section on detection of new lesions, including the interpretation of FDG-PET scan assessment is included. Imaging guidance: the revised RECIST includes a new imaging appendix with updated recommendations on the optimal anatomical assessment of lesions. A key question considered by the RECIST Working Group in developing RECIST 1.1 was whether it was appropriate to move from anatomic unidimensional assessment of tumour burden to either volumetric anatomical assessment or to functional assessment with PET or MRI. It was concluded that, at present, there is not sufficient standardisation or evidence to abandon anatomical assessment of tumour burden. The only exception to this is in the use of FDG-PET imaging as an adjunct to determination of progression. As is detailed in the final paper in this special issue, the use of these promising newer approaches requires appropriate clinical validation studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                dddt
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                27 January 2021
                2021
                : 15
                : 339-347
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University , Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Huaimin Liu Department of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine, The Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University , 127 Dongming Road, Zhengzhou450008, People’s Republic of China Email huaiminliu@sina.com
                Article
                286529
                10.2147/DDDT.S286529
                7850384
                33536747
                © 2021 Cui et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 6, References: 45, Pages: 9
                Funding
                Funded by: funding;
                There were no sources of funding or financial support for this manuscript.
                Categories
                Original Research

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