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      Biodegradable ZnLiCa ternary alloys for critical-sized bone defect regeneration at load-bearing sites: In vitro and in vivo studies


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          A novel biodegradable metal system, ZnLiCa ternary alloys, were systematically investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy reached 567.60 ± 9.56 MPa, which is comparable to pure Ti, one of the most common material used in orthopedics. The elongation of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca is 27.82 ± 18.35%, which is the highest among the ZnLiCa alloys. The in vitro degradation rate of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy in simulated body fluid (SBF) showed significant acceleration than that of pure Zn. CCK-8 tests and hemocompatibility tests manifested that ZnLiCa alloys exhibit good biocompatibility. Real-time PCR showed that Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy successfully stimulated the expressions of osteogenesis-related genes (ALP, COL-1, OCN and Runx-2), especially the OCN. An in vivo implantation was conducted in the radius of New Zealand rabbits for 24 weeks, aiming to treat the bone defects. The Micro-CT and histological evaluations proved that the regeneration of bone defect was faster within the Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy scaffold than the pure Ti scaffold. Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy showed great potential to be applied in orthopedics, especially in the load-bearing sites.

          Graphical abstract


          • The first research work of ZnLiCa alloys to be used as biodegradable metals.

          • The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca alloy reached 567.60 ± 9.56 MPa, which is comparable to pure Ti, one of the most common material used in orthopedics.

          • Porous scaffolds made of Zn0.8Li0.1Ca showed superior bone-defect-treating effects to pure Ti scaffolds in New Zealand rabbits.

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          How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity?

          The bone-bonding ability of a material is often evaluated by examining the ability of apatite to form on its surface in a simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. However, the validity of this method for evaluating bone-bonding ability has not been assessed systematically. Here, the history of SBF, correlation of the ability of apatite to form on various materials in SBF with their in vivo bone bioactivities, and some examples of the development of novel bioactive materials based on apatite formation in SBF are reviewed. It was concluded that examination of apatite formation on a material in SBF is useful for predicting the in vivo bone bioactivity of a material, and the number of animals used in and the duration of animal experiments can be reduced remarkably by using this method.
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            Ti based biomaterials, the ultimate choice for orthopaedic implants – A review

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              The biology of fracture healing.

              The biology of fracture healing is a complex biological process that follows specific regenerative patterns and involves changes in the expression of several thousand genes. Although there is still much to be learned to fully comprehend the pathways of bone regeneration, the over-all pathways of both the anatomical and biochemical events have been thoroughly investigated. These efforts have provided a general understanding of how fracture healing occurs. Following the initial trauma, bone heals by either direct intramembranous or indirect fracture healing, which consists of both intramembranous and endochondral bone formation. The most common pathway is indirect healing, since direct bone healing requires an anatomical reduction and rigidly stable conditions, commonly only obtained by open reduction and internal fixation. However, when such conditions are achieved, the direct healing cascade allows the bone structure to immediately regenerate anatomical lamellar bone and the Haversian systems without any remodelling steps necessary. In all other non-stable conditions, bone healing follows a specific biological pathway. It involves an acute inflammatory response including the production and release of several important molecules, and the recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells in order to generate a primary cartilaginous callus. This primary callus later undergoes revascularisation and calcification, and is finally remodelled to fully restore a normal bone structure. In this article we summarise the basic biology of fracture healing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Bioact Mater
                Bioact Mater
                Bioactive Materials
                KeAi Publishing
                20 April 2021
                November 2021
                20 April 2021
                : 6
                : 11
                : 3999-4013
                [a ]School of Materials Science and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China
                [b ]Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implants, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200011, China
                [c ]Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200080, China
                [d ]School of Medical Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing, 100191, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing, 100871, China. yfzheng@ 123456pku.edu.cn
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. Department of Orthopedics, Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai, 200011, China. krdai@ 123456163.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 9 March 2021
                : 29 March 2021
                : 29 March 2021

                znlica alloys,biodegradable metal,critical-sized bone defect,orthopedics,porous scaffold,in vivo


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