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      Taeniid cestodes in a wolf pack living in a highly anthropic hilly agro-ecosystem Translated title: Cestodes Taeniidae dans une meute de loups vivant dans un agroécosystème vallonné hautement anthropique

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          Abstract

          The Italian wolf population in human-modified landscapes has increased greatly in the last few decades. Anthropisation increases the risk of transmission of many zoonotic infections and in this context, control of taeniid cestode species needs to be addressed from a One Health perspective. Predator-prey interactions are at the root of taeniid cestode transmission, and the wolf plays a key role in the maintenance and transmission of taeniids. To date, all available data on the taeniids of wolves in Italy refer to populations living in a wild habitat. Between 2018 and 2019, we investigated taeniids in a wolf pack living in a highly anthropic hilly agro-ecosystem. Thirty-eight faecal samples were collected and analysed, 4 of which were also genetically characterised for individual wolves and belonged to three different animals. Samples collected were analysed microscopically and by molecular analysis in order to identify the taeniid species. Taeniid eggs were detected in 34.2% (13/38) of samples. Within samples positive to taeniid eggs only Echinococcus granulosus s.s. and Taenia hydatigena were identified in 26.3% and 10.5% of the samples, respectively. On microscopic examination, Capillaria spp., Ancylostomatidae and Toxocara canis eggs, Crenosoma vulpis larvae, and coccidian oocysts were also found. The combination of low biodiversity of taeniid species with a high occurrence of E. granulosus s.s. recorded in this study could be the consequence of a deeper link occurring between wolves and livestock in human-modified landscapes than in wild settings.

          Translated abstract

          La population de loups italiens dans les paysages modifiés par l’homme a considérablement augmenté au cours des dernières décennies. L’anthropisation augmente le risque de transmission de nombreuses infections zoonotiques et, dans ce contexte, le contrôle des espèces de cestodes Taeniidae doit être abordé dans une perspective One Health. Les interactions prédateurs-proies sont à la base de la transmission des Cestodes Taeniidae, et le loup joue un rôle clé dans le maintien et la transmission des Taeniidae. À ce jour, toutes les données disponibles sur les Taeniidae du loup en Italie se réfèrent aux populations vivant dans un habitat sauvage. Entre 2018 et 2019, les Taeniidae d’une meute de loups vivant dans un agro-écosystème vallonné hautement anthropique ont été étudiés. Trente-huit échantillons fécaux ont été collectés et analysés, dont quatre ont également été génétiquement caractérisés pour des loups individuels et appartenaient à trois animaux différents. Les échantillons prélevés ont été analysés au microscope et par analyse moléculaire afin d’identifier les espèces de Taeniidae. Des œufs de Taeniidae ont été détectés dans 34,2 % (13/38) des échantillons. Dans les échantillons positifs aux œufs de Taeniidae, seul Echinococcus granulosus s.s. et Taenia hydatigena ont été identifiés dans 26,3 % et 10,5 % des échantillons, respectivement. Lors de l’examen microscopique, des œufs de Capillaria spp., d’Ancylostomatidae et de Toxocara canis, des larves de Crenosoma vulpis et des oocystes de coccidie ont également été trouvés. La combinaison d’une faible biodiversité d’espèces de Taeniidae avec une forte occurrence d’ E. granulosus s.s. rapportées dans cette étude pourrait être la conséquence d’un lien plus profond entre le loup et le bétail dans les paysages humains que dans les paysages sauvages.

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          Most cited references 68

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          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Genetic variants within the genus Echinococcus identified by mitochondrial DNA sequencing.

            The pattern of species and strain variation within the genus Echinococcus is complex and controversial. In an attempt to characterise objectively the various species and strains, the sequence of a region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (CO1) gene was determined for 56 Echinococcus isolates. Eleven different genotypes were detected, including 7 within Echinococcus granulosus, and these were used to categorise the isolates. The 4 generally accepted Echinococcus species were clearly distinguishable using this approach. In addition, the consensus view of the strain pattern within E. granulosus, based on a variety of criteria of differentiation, was broadly upheld. Very little variation was detected within Echinococcus multilocularis. Remarkable intra-strain homogeneity was found at the DNA sequence level. This region of the rapidly evolving mitochondrial genome is useful as a marker of species and strain identity and as a preliminary indication of evolutionary divergence within the genus Echinococcus.
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              Large predators in the Alps: The fall and rise of man's competitors

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                05 February 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa Viale delle Piagge 2 56124 Pisa Italy
                [2 ] Department of Public Health and Infectious Diseases, Sapienza University of Rome Piazzale Aldo Moro 5 00185 Rome Italy
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: antonio.felicioli@ 123456unipi.it
                Article
                parasite200153 10.1051/parasite/2021008
                10.1051/parasite/2021008
                7863970
                33544075
                © F. Macchioni et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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