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      Hyperfibrinolysis after parapelvic cyst surgery: A case report

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          Abstract

          The present study describes the diagnosis and treatment of hyperfibrinolysis following surgery in a 25-year-old female patient. An examination revealed that the left kidney had been affected by severe hydronephrosis for two weeks prior to hospitalization. The diagnosis of a parapelvic cyst was obtained by preoperative intravenous pyelogram (IVP), computed tomography (CT) and upper left urinary tract retrograde pyelography. Unroofing of the left parapelvic cyst was performed by open surgery. The patient exhibited symptoms of shock 48 h later, and her hemoglobin (Hb) levels dropped to only 62.2 g/l. To treat this, 400 ml erythrocyte suspension transfusion was administered 3 times every other day. The patient’s Hb levels remained between 50 and 60 g/l. The D-dimer assay index rose from 0.3 to 16 mg/l and the fibrin degradation product (FDP) levels progressively increased following the hemorrhage, while the platelet count, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and fibrinogen (Fg) index were all within normal levels. p-Aminomethylbenzoic acid (PAMBA; 0.5 g) was administered to the patient every day, and as a consequence the Hb levels rose steadily from the next day onwards. After a one week course of PAMBA treatment, the patient’s condition became stable. Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic function measurements were all within the normal ranges in the three months following the surgery. Delayed hemorrhage following surgery should be considered as a possible cause of hyperfibrinolysis. Monitoring FDP and D-dimer levels may aid a rapid and clear diagnosis. Anti-fibrinolytic therapy, such as PAMBA treatment, is safe and effective for use against the type of hemorrhage caused by hyperfibrinolysis.

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          Hyperfibrinolysis after major trauma: differential diagnosis of lysis patterns and prognostic value of thrombelastometry.

          The aim of this study was to diagnose hyperfibrinolysis (HF) and its pattern using thrombelastometry and to correlate the diagnosis with mortality. Furthermore, routine laboratory based and the rotational thrombelastometry analyzer (ROTEM)-derived variables were also correlated with survival. Severe trauma patients showing HF in ROTEM were consecutively enrolled in the study. Three different HF patterns were compared: fulminant breakdown within 30 minutes, intermediate HF of 30 to 60 minutes, and late HF after 60 minutes. Injury severity score (ISS), hemodynamics, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count (PC), fibrinogen, and ROTEM variables at admission were analyzed. The observed mortality was compared with the predicted trauma and injury severity score mortality. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with HF. The mean ISS was 47 +/- 14. Fulminant, intermediate, or late HF (n = 11 each group) resulted in 100%, 91%, or 73% mortality, respectively, with the best prognosis for late HF (p = 0.0031). The actual overall mortality of HF (88%) exceeded the predicted trauma and injury severity score mortality (70%) (p = 0.039). Lower PC (123 +/- 53 vs. 193 +/- 91; p = 0.034), ROTEM prolonged clot formation time [CFT, 359 (140/632) vs. 82 (14/190); p = 0.042], and lower platelet contribution to maximum clot firmness [MCF(EXTEM) - MCF(FIBTEM), 34 (20/40) vs. 46 (40/53); p = 0.026] were associated with increased mortality. ROTEM-based diagnosis of HF predicted outcome. Further independent predictors of death were combination of HF with hemorrhagic shock, low PC, and prolonged CFT in ROTEM. ROTEM-based point of care testing in the emergency room is thus able to identify prognostic factors such as prolonged CFT and low platelet contribution to clot firmness (MCF(EX) - MCF(FIB)) earlier than standard laboratory-based monitoring.
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            Prevalence and impact of abnormal ROTEM(R) assays in severe blunt trauma: results of the 'Diagnosis and Treatment of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy (DIA-TRE-TIC) study'.

            ROTEM(®)/TEG(®) (rotational thromboelastometry) assays appear to be useful for the treatment of bleeding trauma patients. However, data on the prevalence and impact of abnormal ROTEM(®) assays are scarce. This is a prospective cohort study of blunt trauma patients (Injury Severity Score ≥15 or Glasgow Coma Score ≤14) admitted to Innsbruck Medical University Hospital between July 2005 and July 2008. Standard coagulation tests, antithrombin (AT), prothrombin fragments (F1+2), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), and ROTEM(®) assays were measured after admission. Data on 334 patients remained for final analysis. ROTEM(®) parameters correlated with standard coagulation tests (all Spearman r>0.5), and significant differences in mortality were detected for defined ROTEM(®) thresholds [FIBTEM 7 mm (21% vs 9%, P=0.006), EXTEM MCF (maximum clot firmness) 45 mm (25.4% vs 9.4%, P=0.001)]. EXTEM MCF was independently associated with early mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-0.99] and MCF FIBTEM with need for red blood cell transfusion (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.98). In polytrauma patients with or without head injury (n=274), the prevalence of low fibrinogen concentrations, impaired fibrin polymerization, and reduced clot firmness was 26%, 30%, and 22%, respectively, and thus higher than the prolonged international normalized ratio (14%). Hyperfibrinolysis increased fatality rates and occurred as frequently in isolated brain injury (n=60) as in polytrauma (n=274) (5%, 95% CI 1.04-13.92 vs 7.3%, 95% CI 4.52-11.05). All patients showed elevated F1+2 and TAT and low AT levels, indicating increased thrombin formation. Our data enlarge the body of evidence showing that ROTEM(®) assays are useful in trauma patients. Treatment concepts should focus on maintaining fibrin polymerization and treating hyperfibrinolysis.
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              Meta-analysis comparing the effectiveness and adverse outcomes of antifibrinolytic agents in cardiac surgery.

              Since the 1980s, antifibrinolytic therapies have assisted surgical teams in reducing the amount of blood loss. To date, however, serious questions remain regarding the safety and effectiveness of these agents. We conducted a meta-analysis to compare aprotinin, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, and tranexamic acid with placebo and head to head on 8 clinical outcomes from 138 trials. Published randomized controlled trial data were collected from OVID/PubMed. Outcomes included total blood loss, transfusion of packed red blood cells, reexploration, mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, dialysis-dependent renal failure, and renal dysfunction (0.5-mg/dL increase in creatinine from baseline). All agents were effective in significantly reducing blood loss by 226 to 348 mL and the proportion of patients transfused with packed red blood cells over placebo. Only high-dose aprotinin reduced the rate of reexploration (relative risk, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.73). There were no significant risks or benefits for any agent for mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure. However, high-dose aprotinin significantly increased the risk of renal dysfunction (relative risk, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.94), 12.9% versus 8.4%. Compared head to head, high-dose aprotinin demonstrated significant reduction in total blood loss over epsilon-aminocaproic acid (-184 mL; 95% CI, -256 to -112) and tranexamic acid (-195 mL; 95% CI, -286 to -105). There were no significant differences among any agent when compared head to head on other outcomes. All antifibrinolytic agents were effective in reducing blood loss and transfusion. There were no significant risks or benefits for mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure. However, high-dose aprotinin was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of renal dysfunction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Exp Ther Med
                Exp Ther Med
                ETM
                Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
                D.A. Spandidos
                1792-0981
                1792-1015
                January 2013
                02 November 2012
                02 November 2012
                : 5
                : 1
                : 271-276
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Urology, Songjiang Hospital Affliated to First Hospital of Shanghai, Songjiang;
                [2 ]Department of Hematology, Renji Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Professor Chun-Hua Tang, Department of Urology, Songjiang Hospital Affliated to First Hospital of Shanghai, No. 746 Zhong Shan Middle Road, Songjiang, Shanghai 201600, P.R. China, E-mail: tch802@ 123456sohu.com
                Article
                etm-05-01-0271
                10.3892/etm.2012.795
                3524075
                23251282
                Copyright © 2013, Spandidos Publications

                This is an open-access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited.

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                Medicine

                diagnosis and treatment, parapelvic cyst, hyperfibrinolysis

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