We have recently reported the presence of a novel perchloric acid soluble protein in rat liver (PSP1) that inhibits cell-free protein synthesis in a rabbit reticulocyte system. While studying the perchloric acid soluble proteins from different tissues of rats, we found that the kidney protein cross-reacted with antibody against the PSP1. In this investigation, we have purified a perchloric acid soluble protein from the rat kidney and studied its characterization and expression. The protein extracted from the postmitochondrial supernatant fraction with 5% perchloric acid was purified by ammonium sulfate fractionation and CM-Sephadex chromatography. By immunoscreening with the rabbit antisera against the PSP1, we detected a cDNA that contained an open reading frame of 411 bp, encoding a 137 amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 14,149 daltons. The deduced amino acid sequence was completely identical with that of PSP1 from rat liver. The perchloric acid soluble protein from rat kidney (K-PSP1) also inhibited cell-free protein synthesis in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system in a different manner than RNase A. Immunohistochemistry showed that the expression of K-PSP1 increased from fetal 17th day to postnatal 4th week, and it remained almost the same until the 7th week of postnatal age. Furthermore, the expression of K-PSP1 in the kidney of the nephrotic rat model was shown to be differentiation dependent. On the other hand, the expression of K-PSP1 in renal tumor cells was downregulated as compared with intact tissue. These results suggest that the expression of K-PSP1 is regulated in a differentiation-dependent manner in the kidney.