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      Validity and reliability of the self-rated fall risk questionnaire in older adults with osteoporosis


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          Several risk assessments have been developed to evaluate fall risk in older adults, but it has not been conclusively established which of these tools is most effective for assessing fall risk in this vulnerable population. Recently, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the self-rated Fall Risk Questionnaire (self-rated FRQ), a 12-item questionnaire designed to screen older adults who are at risk of falling and has been widely used in many centers. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the self-rated FRQ in older adults with osteoporosis.


          This prospective study was conducted at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand from December 2019 to March 2020. Sixty-eight men or postmenopausal women aged > 65 years who were diagnosed with osteoporosis either by bone mineral density T-score or by occurrence of fragility fracture were evaluated with the self-rated FRQ, the Thai falls risk assessment test (Thai-FRAT), the timed get-up-and-go test (TUG test), the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and the 5 times sit-to-stand test (5TSTS test). Validity of the self-rated FRQ was assessed by evaluating the correlations ( r) between the self-rated FRQ score and the scores from the other four assessments. Reliability of the self-rated FRQ was evaluated by measuring test-retest reliability and internal consistency.


          The self-rated FRQ was moderately strongly correlated with the BBS, TUG test, and 5TSTS test ( r = 0.535 to 0.690; p < 0.001), and fairly correlated with the Thai-FRAT ( r = 0.487; p < 0.001). Test-retest reliability of the self-rated FRQ was high, with a Kappa of 1. Internal consistency of the self-rated FRQ was excellent (Cronbach’s alpha: 0.936).


          The self-rated FRQ was found to be a valid and reliable tool for evaluating fall risk in older adults with osteoporosis. Since assessment of fall risk requires a multifaceted measurement tool, the self-rated FRQ is an appropriate tool that can be integrated into the fall risk assessment algorithm in older adults with osteoporosis.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12891-020-03788-z.

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          Most cited references40

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          Guidelines for the Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Self-Report Measures

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            Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires.

            Recently, an increasing number of systematic reviews have been published in which the measurement properties of health status questionnaires are compared. For a meaningful comparison, quality criteria for measurement properties are needed. Our aim was to develop quality criteria for design, methods, and outcomes of studies on the development and evaluation of health status questionnaires. Quality criteria for content validity, internal consistency, criterion validity, construct validity, reproducibility, longitudinal validity, responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects, and interpretability were derived from existing guidelines and consensus within our research group. For each measurement property a criterion was defined for a positive, negative, or indeterminate rating, depending on the design, methods, and outcomes of the validation study. Our criteria make a substantial contribution toward defining explicit quality criteria for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. Our criteria can be used in systematic reviews of health status questionnaires, to detect shortcomings and gaps in knowledge of measurement properties, and to design validation studies. The future challenge will be to refine and complete the criteria and to reach broad consensus, especially on quality criteria for good measurement properties.
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              The timed "Up & Go": a test of basic functional mobility for frail elderly persons.

              This study evaluated a modified, timed version of the "Get-Up and Go" Test (Mathias et al, 1986) in 60 patients referred to a Geriatric Day Hospital (mean age 79.5 years). The patient is observed and timed while he rises from an arm chair, walks 3 meters, turns, walks back, and sits down again. The results indicate that the time score is (1) reliable (inter-rater and intra-rater); (2) correlates well with log-transformed scores on the Berg Balance Scale (r = -0.81), gait speed (r = -0.61) and Barthel Index of ADL (r = -0.78); and (3) appears to predict the patient's ability to go outside alone safely. These data suggest that the timed "Up & Go" test is a reliable and valid test for quantifying functional mobility that may also be useful in following clinical change over time. The test is quick, requires no special equipment or training, and is easily included as part of the routine medical examination.

                Author and article information

                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskelet Disord
                BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
                BioMed Central (London )
                18 November 2020
                18 November 2020
                : 21
                : 757
                GRID grid.10223.32, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0490, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, , Mahidol University, ; 2 Wanglang Road, Bangkoknoi, Bangkok, 10700 Thailand
                Author information
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                : 29 June 2020
                : 11 November 2020
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                validity,reliability,self-rated fall risk questionnaire,older adults,osteoporosis
                validity, reliability, self-rated fall risk questionnaire, older adults, osteoporosis


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