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      Evaluation of Quality of Life in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer by Means of the Thyroid-Specific Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study

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          Abstract

          Background: Patients with malignancy suffer impairment of their quality of life (QoL). QoL has been evaluated in thyroid cancer patients. Since 2010, a new inventory, the thyroid-specific patient-reported outcome (ThyPRO) measure for benign thyroid disorders, has been available. Aim: This study evaluated QoL longitudinally in patients with a history of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) by means of the ThyPRO questionnaire. Methods : From 2012 to 2016, QoL was evaluated yearly in 123 adult DTC patients by means of ThyPRO. The ThyPRO questionnaire consists of 13 scales on which higher scores represent greater impact on QoL in areas affected by thyroid pathology. Disease-specific morbidity due to possible inadequate L-T4 treatment was evaluated by means of the Billewicz scale (BS). The same examinations were conducted in 192 control subjects who had undergone surgery for benign thyroid pathology. Results: DTC and control subjects had similar scores on all but one scale; scores on the hyperthyroid symptoms scale were significantly higher in DTC patients than in controls. Over the 5 years, scores did not change significantly in the DTC group. Overall, QoL and BS scores showed a slight, but not significant, improvement during the study period in DTC patients. BMI impacted on several ThyPRO scales. No significant differences between genders were noted in DTC. Conclusions: The ThyPRO questionnaire indicates that illness perception is similar after thyroidectomy for malign and benign pathology. Only a marginal improvement in QoL was noted in DTC subjects over the 5-year study period. In both groups, females showed a greater perception of illness than males.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Validity and reliability of the novel thyroid-specific quality of life questionnaire, ThyPRO.

          Appropriate scale validity and internal consistency reliability have recently been documented for the new thyroid-specific quality of life (QoL) patient-reported outcome (PRO) measure for benign thyroid disorders, the ThyPRO. However, before clinical use, clinical validity and test-retest reliability should be evaluated. To investigate clinical ('known-groups') validity and test-retest reliability of the Danish version of the ThyPRO. For each of the 13 ThyPRO scales, we defined groups expected to have high versus low scores ('known-groups'). The clinical validity (known-groups validity) was evaluated by whether the ThyPRO scales could detect expected differences in a cross-sectional study of 907 thyroid patients. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by intra-class correlations of two responses to the ThyPRO 2 weeks apart in a subsample of 87 stable patients. On all 13 ThyPRO scales, we found substantial and significant differences between the groups expected to have high versus low scores. Test-retest reliability was above 0.70 (range 0.77-0.89) for all scales, which is usually considered necessary for comparisons among patient groups, but below 0.90, which is the usual threshold for use in individual patients. We found support for the clinical validity of the new thyroid-specific QoL questionnaire, ThyPRO, and evidence of good test-retest reliability. The questionnaire is now ready for use in clinical studies of patients with thyroid diseases.
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            Interpretation and validity of changes in scores on the Graves' ophthalmopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL) after different treatments.

            The Graves' ophthalmopathy quality of life questionnaire (GO-QOL) is the first instrument available to measure health-related quality of life (HRQL) of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. The main objective of this study was to define a minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in score on the GO-QOL that can be considered an important improvement in HRQL by examining changes in GO-QOL scores in patients who subjectively report improvement from their treatment. A secondary objective was to test the longitudinal validity of the GO-QOL, using prespecified hypotheses about expected treatment effects. A prospective cohort study. We included 164 patients who were scheduled for radiotherapy (23), orbital decompression (10 for sight loss, 38 for exophthalmos), eye muscle surgery (31), eyelid lengthening (43) or blepharoplasty (19). Patients completed the GO-QOL and three general HRQL questionnaires, before and three or six months after treatment, depending on the performed procedure. Clinical characteristics were collected from the medical records. Mean changes in GO-QOL scores and effect sizes were calculated after different treatments, and in subgroups of responders and nonresponders according to clinical characteristics and according to the patients themselves. A clinical response to treatment was associated with a change in GO-QOL scores of approximately 10--20 points after major treatments (radiotherapy or decompression), and with a change of approximately 3--10 points after minor surgery (eye muscle surgery, eyelid lengthening, blepharoplasty). Changes in GO-QOL scores of about 6--10 points were considered important improvements by the patients themselves. The direction and amount of change in GO-QOL scores after different treatments were in accordance with our prespecified hypotheses about treatment effects. Effect sizes in the GO-QOL subscales were generally higher than effect sizes of the general HRQL subscales, supporting the longitudinal validity of the GO-QOL. As a general guideline, one could consider a mean change of at least 6 points on one or both subscales an important change in daily functioning for patients. For more invasive therapies, a change of at least 10 points is recommended as a minimal clinically important difference.
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              Estimation of Tissue Hypothyroidism by a New Clinical Score: Evaluation of Patients with Various Grades of Hypothyroidism and Controls

               H. Zulewski (1997)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ETJ
                ETJ
                10.1159/issn.2235-0640
                European Thyroid Journal
                S. Karger AG
                2235-0640
                2235-0802
                2020
                September 2020
                24 July 2019
                : 9
                : 5
                : 247-255
                Affiliations
                aEndocrine Unit, San Martino Polyclinic Hospital, Genoa, Italy
                bDepartment of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy
                Author notes
                *Massimo Giusti, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa, Viale Benedetto XV, 6, IT–16100 Genoa (Italy), E-Mail magius@unige.it
                Article
                501201 Eur Thyroid J 2020;9:247–255
                10.1159/000501201
                7548839
                33088793
                © 2019 European Thyroid Association Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Clinical Thyroidology / Research Article

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