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      Effects of Estrogen and Related Agents upon Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity within an Impaired Nigrostriatal Dopaminergic System of Ovariectomized Mice

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          Abstract

          Estrogen increases methamphetamine (MA)-induced neurotoxicity within the impaired nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) system of ovariectomized female mice, as defined by enhanced striatal dopamine (DA) depletion. In this study we compared the effects of a lower dose of estradiol benzoate (EB, 1 µg) with related agents – tamoxifen (TMX, 12.5 µg), testosterone (5 µg) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 3 mg) in this paradigm. In experiment 1, ovariectomized mice received an initial treatment with MA. At 1 week after MA, mice were treated with EB, TMX, testosterone, DHEA or oil vehicle and 24 h later a second MA treatment. Striatal DA and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) concentrations in the MA-treated groups were decreased compared to the non-MA-treated control. Neither EB nor any of the other agents tested showed enhanced neurodegenerative or neuroprotective effects against a second MA invasion. To verify that estrogen was capable of showing a neuroprotective effect under a condition of two administrations of MA, in experiment 2, EB was administered either once or twice prior to each of the two MA treatments. EB treatment prior to the first MA invasion or first and second MA protected the NSDA system against DA and DOPAC depletion. These results imply that a lower dose of EB, TMX, testosterone and DHEA cannot exert neurodegenerative or neuroprotective effects in the impaired NSDA model. However, EB administered prior to the introduction of neurotoxicity can protect the NSDA system. This study may provide an understanding of the variations in results on the effects of estrogen upon the NSDA neurodegenerative disorder, Parkinson’s disease.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Postmenopausal estrogen use affects risk for Parkinson disease.

          Although estrogen therapy has been associated with improved cognitive functioning, a reduced risk of dementia in women with Parkinson disease (PD), and a decreased risk of Alzheimer disease, estrogen therapy has not affected the risk of PD per se. To determine whether postmenopausal women with PD differed from control subjects with regard to estrogen exposure.Design, Setting, and Patients A case-control design was used, abstracting questionnaire data obtained via interview from 133 female PD cases and 128 female controls during routine outpatient clinic visits in 1999 at a mid-Atlantic tertiary care referral center. There were 140 subjects (68 PD cases and 72 controls) who met the inclusion criteria. Main Outcome Measure Use of postmenopausal estrogen therapy. More women in the control group than in the PD group took postmenopausal estrogen (36 [50%] of 72 women vs 17 [25%] of 68 women; P<.003), and women who had taken postmenopausal estrogen were less likely to develop PD than those who had not (odds ratio, 0.40 [95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.84]; P<.02). Among PD cases only, postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with age of onset. Postmenopausal estrogen therapy may be associated with a reduced risk of PD in women.
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            Sex dimorphisms in the neuroprotective effects of estrogen in an animal model of Parkinson's disease.

            The incidence of certain neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, appears to be more prevalent in men. Studies involving estrogen treatment of ovariectomised rodents attribute this largely to the neuroprotective effects of estrogen. However, a neuroprotective role for physiological levels of circulating hormones in males and females is less clear. Using the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) model of Parkinson's disease to lesion the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) pathway, we have shown that in females, endogenously produced estrogen is neuroprotective, whereas in males, gonadal factors increase striatal 6-OHDA toxicity. Intriguingly, estrogen, but not dihydrotestosterone, a nonaromatizable androgen, reversed the effects of orchidectomy on lesion size, raising the novel the hypothesis that enhanced male susceptibility may be attributable to the effects of endogenous testosterone only after its aromatization to estrogen. Thus, estrogen appears to exert opposite effects in the NSDA in males and females, being neuroprotective in females, but not in males, where it may even exacerbate neurodegenerative responses, with important implications for the clinical potential of estrogen-related compounds as neuroprotective agents. Preliminary experiments support the hypothesis that sex differences in the adult NSDA may result from the organisational actions of gonadal steroids during the critical neonatal period for the masculinization of the brain. Further studies are needed to determine whether this early organisation of a sexually differentiated neural circuitry may contribute to the emergence of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease.
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              Effect of reproductive factors and postmenopausal hormone use on the risk of Parkinson disease.

              Parkinson disease (PD) is less common in women possibly because of hormonal or reproductive influences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations of reproductive factors and postmenopausal hormone use with the risk of PD among postmenopausal women. Incident cases (n = 178) and randomly selected age-matched controls (n = 189) who were members of the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program (KPMCP) of Northern California participated in the study conducted during the years 1994 to 1995. Statistical analyses were carried out using logistic regression. The association of postmenopausal hormone use with PD risk depended on the type of menopause. Among women with history of a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy, estrogen use alone was associated with a 2.6-fold increased risk (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.6, 95% CI: 1.1 to 6.1) and significant trends in the risk of PD were observed with increasing duration of estrogen use, but disease risk was not influenced by recency of use. In contrast, among women with natural menopause, no increased risk of PD was observed with hormone use (estrogen alone or a combined estrogen-progestin regimen). Early age at final menstrual period (44 years or younger) was associated with reduction in risk (adjusted OR 0.5, 95% CI: 0.3 to 1.0). Age at menarche and parity were not associated with the risk of PD. Postmenopausal use of estrogen alone may increase the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) among women with a hysterectomy. Among women with natural menopause for whom the usual treatment is combined estrogen-progestin therapy, no increased risk of PD was observed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2006
                October 2006
                13 November 2006
                : 83
                : 5-6
                : 295-302
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Anatomy, Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine, Rootstown, Ohio, USA; bCenter for New Drugs Evaluation, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China
                Article
                95338 Neuroendocrinology 2006;83:295–302
                10.1159/000095338
                16926530
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 39, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Paper

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