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      Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Paracetamol Particles Formation by RESS Method

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      Journal of Nanomaterials

      Hindawi Limited

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          Abstract

          Ultrafine particles of paracetamol were produced by Rapid Expansion of Supercritical Solution (RESS). The experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of extraction temperature (313–353 K), extraction pressure (10–18 MPa), preexpansion temperature (363–403 K), and postexpansion temperature (273–323 K) on particles size and morphology of paracetamol particles. The characterization of the particles was determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The average particle size of the original paracetamol was 20.8 μm, while the average particle size of paracetamol after nanonization via the RESS process was 0.46 μm depending on the experimental conditions used. Moreover, the morphology of the processed particles changed to spherical and regular while the virgin particles of paracetamol were needle-shape and irregular. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters. The extraction temperature, 347 K; extraction pressure, 12 MPa; preexpansion temperature, 403 K; and postexpansion temperature, 322 K was found to be the optimum conditions to achieve the minimum average particle size of paracetamol.

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          Electrospinning of polymeric nanofibers for tissue engineering applications: a review.

          Interest in electrospinning has recently escalated due to the ability to produce materials with nanoscale properties. Electrospun fibers have been investigated as promising tissue engineering scaffolds since they mimic the nanoscale properties of native extracellular matrix. In this review, we examine electrospinning by providing a brief description of the theory behind the process, examining the effect of changing the process parameters on fiber morphology, and discussing the potential applications and impacts of electrospinning on the field of tissue engineering.
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            Nanostructured materials for applications in drug delivery and tissue engineering

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              Nanofibers and their applications in tissue engineering

              Developing scaffolds that mimic the architecture of tissue at the nanoscale is one of the major challenges in the field of tissue engineering. The development of nanofibers has greatly enhanced the scope for fabricating scaffolds that can potentially meet this challenge. Currently, there are three techniques available for the synthesis of nanofibers: electrospinning, self-assembly, and phase separation. Of these techniques, electrospinning is the most widely studied technique and has also demonstrated the most promising results in terms of tissue engineering applications. The availability of a wide range of natural and synthetic biomaterials has broadened the scope for development of nanofibrous scaffolds, especially using the electrospinning technique. The three dimensional synthetic biodegradable scaffolds designed using nanofibers serve as an excellent framework for cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, nanofibers, irrespective of their method of synthesis, have been used as scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering (including bone, cartilage, ligament, and skeletal muscle), skin tissue engineering, vascular tissue engineering, neural tissue engineering, and as carriers for the controlled delivery of drugs, proteins, and DNA. This review summarizes the currently available techniques for nanofiber synthesis and discusses the use of nanofibers in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Nanomaterials
                Journal of Nanomaterials
                Hindawi Limited
                1687-4110
                1687-4129
                2012
                2012
                : 2012
                :
                : 1-15
                Article
                10.1155/2012/340379
                © 2012

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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