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      Quasispecies Theory and the Behavior of RNA Viruses

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      1 , 2 , *
      PLoS Pathogens
      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          A large number of medically important viruses, including HIV, hepatitis C virus, and influenza, have RNA genomes. These viruses replicate with extremely high mutation rates and exhibit significant genetic diversity. This diversity allows a viral population to rapidly adapt to dynamic environments and evolve resistance to vaccines and antiviral drugs. For the last 30 years, quasispecies theory has provided a population-based framework for understanding RNA viral evolution. A quasispecies is a cloud of diverse variants that are genetically linked through mutation, interact cooperatively on a functional level, and collectively contribute to the characteristics of the population. Many predictions of quasispecies theory run counter to traditional views of microbial behavior and evolution and have profound implications for our understanding of viral disease. Here, we discuss basic principles of quasispecies theory and describe its relevance for our understanding of viral fitness, virulence, and antiviral therapeutic strategy.

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          Most cited references61

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          Avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans.

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            The cytidine deaminase CEM15 induces hypermutation in newly synthesized HIV-1 DNA.

            High mutation frequency during reverse transcription has a principal role in the genetic variation of primate lentiviral populations. It is the main driving force for the generation of drug resistance and the escape from immune surveillance. G to A hypermutation is one of the characteristics of primate lentiviruses, as well as other retroviruses, during replication in vivo and in cell culture. The molecular mechanisms of this process, however, remain to be clarified. Here, we demonstrate that CEM15 (also known as apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme, catalytic polypeptide-like 3G; APOBEC3G), an endogenous inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication, is a cytidine deaminase and is able to induce G to A hypermutation in newly synthesized viral DNA. This effect can be counteracted by the HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif). It seems that this viral DNA mutator is a viral defence mechanism in host cells that may induce either lethal hypermutation or instability of the incoming nascent viral reverse transcripts, which could account for the Vif-defective phenotype. Importantly, the accumulation of CEM15-mediated non-lethal hypermutation in the replicating viral genome could potently contribute to the genetic variation of primate lentiviral populations.
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              Rapid evolution of RNA genomes.

              RNA viruses show high mutation frequencies partly because of a lack of the proofreading enzymes that assure fidelity of DNA replication. This high mutation frequency is coupled with high rates of replication reflected in rates of RNA genome evolution which can be more than a millionfold greater than the rates of the DNA chromosome evolution of their hosts. There are some disease implications for the DNA-based biosphere of this rapidly evolving RNA biosphere.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS Pathog
                plos
                plospath
                PLoS Pathogens
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1553-7366
                1553-7374
                July 2010
                July 2010
                22 July 2010
                : 6
                : 7
                : e1001005
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California, United States of America
                University of California San Diego, United States of America
                Author notes
                Article
                10-PLPA-RV-2667R2
                10.1371/journal.ppat.1001005
                2908548
                20661479
                b6e36750-fdb6-4838-80f1-9e5b7e1372bb
                Lauring, Andino. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                History
                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Categories
                Review
                Virology/Antivirals, including Modes of Action and Resistance
                Virology/Effects of Virus Infection on Host Gene Expression
                Virology/Emerging Viral Diseases
                Virology/New Therapies, including Antivirals and Immunotherapy
                Virology/Vaccines
                Virology/Virus Evolution and Symbiosis

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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