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      Changes in cardiovascular disease risk and behavioural risk factors before the introduction of a health check programme in England.

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          Abstract

          A population-based programme of health checks was introduced for adults in England in 2011 for the primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and risk factors management. The aim was to evaluate changes in cardiovascular risk and behavioural risk factors in a health check eligible population in England from 1994 to 2013, by using repeated cross-sectional design using seven surveys of the Health Survey for England. Measures included traditional CVD risk factors and behavioural risk factors. Linear trends were estimated allowing for sampling design. The surveys comprised 49,805 adults aged 45 to 74years; 30,639 were free from cardiovascular comorbidity; 16,041 (52%) had complete data for quantitative risk factors. Between 1994 and 2013, systolic blood pressure decreased by 3.1 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 3.6) mmHg per decade in men and 5.0 (4.5 to 5.5) in women. Total cholesterol decreased by 0.20 (0.16 to 0.24) mmol/l per decade in men; 0.23 (0.19 to 0.26) in women. Smoking declined by 6% (5% to 8%) per decade in men; 7% (6% - 8%) in women. The proportion with CVD-risk ≥20% declined by 6.8% per decade in men; 2.4% in women. Multiple behavioural risk factors were strongly associated with estimated CVD-risk, but improving trends in traditional CVD risk factors were inconsistent with increasing indicators of adiposity. Long-term declines in traditional risk factors contributed to reductions in estimated CVD-risk prior to the introduction of a health check programme. Behaviour change interventions for multiple risk factor exposures remain a key area for future research.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Prev Med
          Preventive medicine
          Elsevier BV
          1096-0260
          0091-7435
          Oct 2016
          : 91
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, King's College London, Addison House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom. Electronic address: samah.alageel@kcl.ac.uk.
          [2 ] Department of Primary Care and Public Health Sciences, King's College London, Addison House, Guy's Campus, London SE1 1UL, United Kingdom.
          Article
          S0091-7435(16)30231-6
          10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.08.025
          27539072

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