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      Immobilization of Pseudorabies Virus in Porcine Tracheal Respiratory Mucus Revealed by Single Particle Tracking

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          Pseudorabies virus (PRV) initially replicates in the porcine upper respiratory tract. It easily invades the mucosae and submucosae for subsequent spread throughout the body via blood vessels and nervous system. In this context, PRV developed ingenious processes to overcome different barriers such as epithelial cells and the basement membrane. Another important but often overlooked barrier is the substantial mucus layer which coats the mucosae. However, little is known about how PRV particles interact with porcine respiratory mucus. We therefore measured the barrier properties of porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, and investigated the mobility of nanoparticles including PRV in this mucus. We developed an in vitro model utilizing single particle tracking microscopy. Firstly, the mucus pore size was evaluated with polyethylene glycol coupled (PEGylated) nanoparticles and atomic force microscope. Secondly, the mobility of PRV in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus was examined and compared with that of negative, positive and PEGylated nanoparticles. The pore size of porcine tracheal respiratory mucus ranged from 80 to 1500 nm, with an average diameter of 455±240 nm. PRV (zeta potential: −31.8±1.5 mV) experienced a severe obstruction in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, diffusing 59-fold more slowly than in water. Similarly, the highly negatively (−49.8±0.6 mV) and positively (36.7±1.1 mV) charged nanoparticles were significantly trapped. In contrast, the nearly neutral, hydrophilic PEGylated nanoparticles (−9.6±0.8 mV) diffused rapidly, with the majority of particles moving 50-fold faster than PRV. The mobility of the particles measured was found to be related but not correlated to their surface charge. Furthermore, PEGylated PRV (-13.8±0.9 mV) was observed to diffuse 13-fold faster than native PRV. These findings clearly show that the mobility of PRV was significantly hindered in porcine tracheal respiratory mucus, and that the obstruction of PRV was due to complex mucoadhesive interactions including charge interactions rather than size exclusion.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Single-particle tracking: applications to membrane dynamics.

          Measurements of trajectories of individual proteins or lipids in the plasma membrane of cells show a variety of types of motion. Brownian motion is observed, but many of the particles undergo non-Brownian motion, including directed motion, confined motion, and anomalous diffusion. The variety of motion leads to significant effects on the kinetics of reactions among membrane-bound species and requires a revision of existing views of membrane structure and dynamics.
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            Single particle tracking. Analysis of diffusion and flow in two-dimensional systems.

            Analysis of the trajectories of small particles at high spatial and temporal resolution using video enhanced contrast microscopy provides a powerful approach to characterizing the mechanisms of particle motion in living cells and in other systems. We present here the theoretical basis for the analysis of these trajectories for particles undergoing random diffusion and/or systematic transport at uniform velocity in two-dimensional systems. The single particle tracking method, based on observations of the trajectories of individual particles, is compared with methods that characterize the motions of a large collection of particles such as fluorescence photobleaching recovery. Determination of diffusion coefficients or transport velocities either from correlation of positions or of velocities of the particles is discussed. A result of practical importance is an analysis of the dependence of the expected statistical uncertainty of these determinations on the number of position measurements. This provides a way of judging the accuracy of the diffusion coefficients and transport velocities obtained using this approach.
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              Structure and function of the polymeric mucins in airways mucus.

              The airways mucus gel performs a critical function in defending the respiratory tract against pathogenic and environmental challenges. In normal physiology, the secreted mucins, in particular the polymeric mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B, provide the organizing framework of the airways mucus gel and are major contributors to its rheological properties. However, overproduction of mucins is an important factor in the morbidity and mortality of chronic airways disease (e.g., asthma, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). The roles of these enormous, multifunctional, O-linked glycoproteins in health and disease are discussed.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                7 December 2012
                : 7
                : 12
                [1 ]Laboratory of Virology, Department of Virology, Parasitology and Immunology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan, Merelbeke, Belgium
                [2 ]Laboratory of General Biochemistry and Physical Pharmacy, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat, Ghent, Belgium
                [3 ]Center for Nano- and Biophotonics, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat, Ghent, Belgium
                [4 ]Polymer Chemistry & Biomaterials Group, Ghent, Belgium
                Queen’s University, Canada
                Author notes

                ¶ Shared senior authors.

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: XY KF SG HJN. Performed the experiments: XY KF SVV. Analyzed the data: XY KF KB LS SG HJN. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: KB PD. Wrote the paper: XY LS.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 9
                This work was supported by Ghent University. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Animal Models of Infection
                Viral Transmission and Infection
                Model Organisms
                Animal Models
                Materials Science
                Material by Attribute
                Veterinary Science
                Veterinary Diseases
                Veterinary Virology



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