Tissue engineering (TE) involves the combination of cells with scaffolding materials and appropriate growth factors in order to regenerate or replace damaged and degenerated tissues and organs. The scaffold materials serve as templates for tissue formation and play a vital role in TE. Among scaffold materials, silk fibroin (SF), a naturally occurring protein, has attracted great attention in TE applications due to its excellent mechanical properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility, and bio-absorbability. SF is usually dissolved in an aqueous solution and can be easily reconstituted into different forms, including films, mats, hydrogels, and sponges, through various fabrication techniques, including spin coating, electrospinning, freeze drying, and supercritical CO2-assisted drying. Furthermore, to facilitate the fabrication of more complex SF-based scaffolds, high-precision techniques such as micro-patterning and bio-printing have been explored in recent years. These processes contribute to the diversity of surface area, mean pore size, porosity, and mechanical properties of different silk fibroin scaffolds and can be used in various TE applications to provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties. This review introduces the physicochemical and mechanical properties of SF and looks into a range of SF-based scaffolds that have recently been developed. The typical applications of SF-based scaffolds for TE of bone, cartilage, teeth and mandible tissue, cartilage, skeletal muscle, and vascular tissue are highlighted and discussed followed by a discussion of issues to be addressed in future studies.