The aim of this work was to obtain the first estimates of survival rates (S), capture probability (p) and life expectancy for armadillos in South America by analyzing capture-mark-recapture data obtained from a population of Chaetophractus vellerosus (Gray, 1865) located in Magdalena, Buenos Aires, Argentina. From June 2006 to June 2011, we conducted 16 field surveys that resulted in 365 capture events of 152 adult C. vellerosus. For the survival analysis we used a Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) modelling framework. Interannual variation in S made an important contribution to overall variation in the survival rate of C. vellerosus. The average life expectancy for females and males after attaining sexual maturity was estimated at 1.70 and 1.65 years respectively. The period of lowest survival probability was associated with dry seasons that might have affected the availability of food. This study provides the first estimates of demographic parameters for xenarthrans in South America.