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Interferon-stimulated gene 15 in hepatitis B-related liver diseases

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      Abstract

      This study investigates the association of Interferon-stimulated gene 15 ( ISG15) polymorphisms, ISG15 serum levels and expression with HBV-related liver diseases. The ISG15 promoter and the two exons of the gene were screened for polymorphisms in 766 HBV-infected patients and in 223 controls. Soluble ISG15 levels were measured by ELISA. ISG15 mRNA expression was quantified by qRT-PCR in 36 tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues. The exon 2 allele rs1921A was found associated with decreased progression of HBV-related liver diseases (LC vs. CHB: OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4-0.8, adjusted P = 0.003; HCC vs. CHB: OR = 0.6, 95%CI = 0.4-0.9, adjusted P = 0.005). The rs1921AA genotype was associated with low levels of AST, ALT and total bilirubin, but with high prothrombin levels ( P < 0.05). ISG15 serum levels were higher among HBV patients compared to controls ( P < 0.0001) and positively associated with HBV-related liver diseases, with highest levels among LC patients. ISG15 levels were correlated with HBV-DNA loads ( P = 0.001). In non-tumor tissues from HCC patients, ISG15 mRNA expression was increased in HBV compared to non-HBV infection ( P = 0.016). The ISG15 rs1921 variant and ISG15 expression are associated with HBV-related liver diseases. Taken together, ISG15 appears to be a proviral factor involved in HBV replication and triggering progression of HBV-related liver diseases.

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      Most cited references 46

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      The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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        Mechanisms of type-I- and type-II-interferon-mediated signalling.

        Interferons are cytokines that have antiviral, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory effects. Because of these important properties, in the past two decades, major research efforts have been undertaken to understand the signalling mechanisms through which these cytokines induce their effects. Since the original discovery of the classical JAK (Janus activated kinase)-STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) pathway of signalling, it has become clear that the coordination and cooperation of multiple distinct signalling cascades - including the mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 cascade and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase cascade - are required for the generation of responses to interferons. It is anticipated that an increased understanding of the contributions of these recently identified pathways will advance our current thinking about how interferons work.
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          Prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma: the BCLC staging classification.

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          The classifications of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) currently used are based on prognostic factors obtained from studies performed years ago when most tumors were diagnosed at advanced stages and the survival rates were substantially poor. Recent investigations have reviewed the survival of early tumors properly selected to receive radical therapies and the natural outcome of nonsurgical HCC patients. These data enable a new staging system to be proposed, the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging classification, that comprises four stages that select the best candidates for the best therapies currently available. Early stage (A) includes patients with asymptomatic early tumors suitable for radical therapies--resection, transplantation or percutaneous treatments. Intermediate stage (B) comprises patients with asymptomatic multinodular HCC. Advanced stage (C) includes patients with symptomatic tumors and/or an invasive tumoral pattern (vascular invasion/extrahepatic spread). Stage B and C patients may receive palliative treatments/new agents in the setting of phase II investigations or randomized controlled trials. End-stage disease (D) contain patients with extremely grim prognosis (Okuda stage III or PST 3-4) that should merely receive symptomatic treatment.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1 Institute of Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
            2 108 Military Central Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
            3 Vietnamese-German Center for Medical Research, Hanoi, Vietnam
            4 Department of Pathophysiology, Vietnam Military Medical University, Hanoi, Vietnam
            5 Department of Infectious Diseases, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany
            Author notes
            Correspondence to: Thirumalaisamy P. Velavan, velavan@ 123456medizin.uni-tuebingen.de
            [**]

            Shared senior authors

            Journal
            Oncotarget
            Oncotarget
            Oncotarget
            ImpactJ
            Oncotarget
            Impact Journals LLC
            1949-2553
            18 October 2016
            10 September 2016
            : 7
            : 42
            : 67777-67787
            27626177
            5356518
            11955
            10.18632/oncotarget.11955
            Copyright: © 2016 Hoan et al.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

            Categories
            Research Paper: Pathology

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