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      CO 2 utilization as a soft oxidant for the synthesis of styrene from ethylbenzene over Co 3O 4 supported on magnesium aluminate spinel: role of spinel activation temperature

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          Abstract

          Magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl 2O 4) supported Co 3O 4 catalysts are synthesized and tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethylbenzene using CO 2 as a soft oxidant. The effect of spinel calcination temperature on the catalytic performance has been systematically investigated. With an increase in the activation temperature from 600 to 900 °C, the active presence of a single-phase MgAl 2O 4 spinel is observed. A catalyst series consisting of MgAl 2O 4 spinel with varying Co loadings (10–20 wt%) were prepared and systematically distinguished by ICP, XRD, BET, TPR, NH 3-TPD, UV–Vis DRS, FT-IR, XPS, SEM, and TEM. Among the tested cobalt catalysts, 15Co/800MA sample derived by calcination of MgAl 2O 4 support at 800 °C exhibits the most excellent catalytic performance with the maximum ethylbenzene conversion (≥ 82%). Also, high yields of styrene (≥ 81%) could be consistently achieved on the same active catalyst. Further, the catalyst exhibited almost stable activity during 20 h time-on-stream with a slow decrease in the ethylbenzene conversion from 82 to 59%. However, the selectivity of styrene (98%) stayed almost constant during the reaction. Activation of the MgAl 2O 4 spinel at 800 °C facilitates a dramatic chemical homogeneity for the alignment of Co 3O 4 nanoparticles on the surface of the active catalyst. Moreover, the isolated Co 3O 4 clusters have a strong chemical/electronic interaction with the Mg 2+ and Al 3+ ions on the support perform a crucial role to achieve the maximum catalytic activity.

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          Carbon dioxide utilization as a soft oxidant and promoter in catalysis

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            Stable platinum nanoparticles on specific MgAl2O4 spinel facets at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres.

            The development of thermally stable, nanometer-sized precious metal-based catalysts remains a daunting challenge. Such materials, especially those based on the use of costly platinum metal, are essential and, to date, non-replaceable for a large number of industrially important catalytic processes. Here we report a well-defined cuboctahedral MgAl2O4 spinel support material that is capable of stabilizing platinum particles in the range of 1-3 nm on its relatively abundant {111} facets during extremely severe aging at 800 °C in air for 1 week. The aged catalysts retain platinum dispersions of 15.9% with catalytic activities for methanol oxidation being ~80% of that of fresh ones, whereas a conventional Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst is severely sintered and nearly inactive. We reveal the origin of the markedly superior ability of spinel {111} facets, resulting from strong interactions between spinel surface oxygens and epitaxial platinum {111} facets, inspiring the rational design of anti-sintering supported platinum group catalysts.
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              Iron Oxide Catalysts for Dehydrogenation of Ethylbenzene in the Presence of Steam

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mvrjntu@gmail.com
                svurams@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                17 December 2020
                17 December 2020
                2020
                : 10
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.417636.1, ISNI 0000 0004 0636 1405, Catalysis and Fine Chemicals Laboratory, , Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, ; Hyderabad, 500007 Telangana India
                [2 ]Department of Chemistry (H & S), PACE Institute of Technology and Sciences, Ongole, 523001 Andhra Pradesh India
                [3 ]GRID grid.412113.4, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1557, Department of Earth Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Science and Technology, , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), ; 43600 Bangi, Selangor Malaysia
                [4 ]GRID grid.412113.4, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 1557, Centre for Tropical Climate Change System, Institute of Climate Change, , Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), ; 43600 Bangi, Selangor Malaysia
                [5 ]GRID grid.412255.5, ISNI 0000 0000 9284 9319, School of Ocean Engineering, , Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, ; 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman Malaysia
                [6 ]GRID grid.469887.c, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), ; Sector 19, Kamala Nehru Nagar, Ghaziabad, 20100 Uttar Pradesh India
                Article
                79188
                10.1038/s41598-020-79188-z
                7747735
                33335173
                b71b047a-0ea7-4f50-8c5d-d3c512fdc485
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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                © The Author(s) 2020

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                chemistry,catalyst synthesis,heterogeneous catalysis
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                chemistry, catalyst synthesis, heterogeneous catalysis

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