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      Role of Aldosterone in Left Ventricular Hypertrophy among African-American Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Aims: Recently, serum aldosterone levels have been reported to play a significant role in cardiac hypertrophy. One study of Japanese patients correlated aldosterone levels with the degree of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in those undergoing hemodialysis. However, the role of aldosterone in LVH in non-Japanese patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has not been established. Materials and Methods: Researchers evaluated 42 [29 African-Americans (69%), 11 Caucasians (26%), and 2 other (5%)] male ESRD patients on dialysis for more than 6 months. Pre- and postdialysis, blood pressures and aldosterone and renin concentrations were measured. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed and left ventricular mass (LVM) index was calculated using the Devereaux formula. Medications were reviewed. Results: There were no differences noted in medications prescribed for African-Americans and for Caucasians. Additionally, data from diabetic patients showed no statistically significant correlation between LVM index and any of the variables, including pre- and postdialysis blood pressure, serum potassium, renin, and aldosterone levels, for African-Americans compared to Caucasians. Data from nondiabetic patients showed a positive correlation between LVM and plasma aldosterone concentration in African-Americans (n = 10). Data from nondiabetic Caucasians were disregarded because only one was studied. Conclusion: LVM and aldosterone correlate in African-American males with ESRD on hemodialysis without diabetes. This has important implications for the etiology of, and therapy for LVH in this population. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the same associations exist in females and Caucasians.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Impact of left ventricular hypertrophy on survival in end-stage renal disease.

          We examined the prognostic significance of left ventricular hypertrophy determined by echocardiography in a cohort beginning renal replacement therapy. No patient had hemodynamically significant valvular disease or echocardiographic signs of obstructive cardiomyopathy. Using the Cox proportional hazards model, left ventricular hypertrophy was significantly associated with survival. The relative risk, based on comparison of upper and lower quintiles of left ventricular mass index, was 3.7 (95% confidence intervals, 1.6 to 8.3) for all-cause mortality and 3.7 (95% confidence intervals, 1.2 to 11.1) for cardiac mortality. The independent risk, adjusted for age, known coronary artery disease, diabetes, level of systolic blood pressure, and treatment (dialysis or transplantation), was 2.9 (95% confidence intervals, 1.3 to 6.9) for all-cause mortality and 2.7 (95% confidence intervals, 0.9 to 8.2) for cardiac mortality. Therefore, left ventricular hypertrophy appears to be an important, independent, determinant of survival in patients receiving therapy for end-stage renal failure.
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            Plasma aldosterone concentrations in chronic renal disease

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              Relations of serum aldosterone to cardiac structure: gender-related differences in the Framingham Heart Study.

              Aldosterone is associated with myocardial fibrosis in experimental studies and with left ventricular remodeling in heart failure patients. We hypothesized that aldosterone influences ventricular remodeling in people without congestive heart failure in the community. We examined the relations between serum aldosterone and echocardiographic left ventricular measurements in 2820 Framingham Study subjects (mean age 57 years, 58% women, 88% white) free of myocardial infarction and overt heart failure. Serum aldosterone levels were higher in women compared with men. In linear regression models (adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure, weight, height, diabetes, heart rate, hypertension treatment, and ethnicity), left ventricular wall thickness and relative wall thickness were positively related, and left ventricular diastolic dimensions were inversely related to serum aldosterone in women (P 0.20 for all). There was no effect modification of the relations observed in women by menopausal status. The gender-related differences in relations of serum aldosterone to relative wall thickness were consistent across subgroups defined on the basis of sex-specific median values of systolic blood pressure and body mass index. Fractional shortening, left ventricular mass, and left atrial dimensions were not related to serum aldosterone in either sex. In conclusion, in our community-based sample of individuals free of myocardial infarction and heart failure, serum aldosterone was positively associated with a left ventricular geometric pattern suggestive of concentric remodeling (increased left ventricular wall thickness and relative wall thickness but decreased internal dimensions) in women but not in men. Additional investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                April 2007
                23 February 2007
                : 27
                : 2
                : 159-163
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aNephrology and Hypertension, and bCardiology, Department of Medicine, St. John Hospital and Medical Center, Detroit, Mich., USA
                Article
                100106 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:159–163
                10.1159/000100106
                17317951
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 18, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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