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      A new species of Andinia (Pleurothallidinae) from Peru and an updated phylogenetic analysis of the genus with emphasis on subgenus Aenigma

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          Abstract

          Abstract A new species, Andinia peruviana, from Amazonas department, Peru, is described and illustrated. Updated phylogenetic analyses of nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) sequences in this study re-affirm the monophyletic nature of Andinia sensu lato and further support the previously proposed circumscription which incorporated genera Lueranthos, Masdevalliantha, Neooreophilus, and Xenosia. Andinia subgenus Aenigma was strongly supported in all analyses. The new species was determined phylogenetically to belong to subgenus Aenigma, along with A. barbata, A. dalstroemii, A. hirtzii, A. pogonion, A. schizopogon, and A. uchucayensis. The phylogenetically-confirmed representatives of subgenus Aenigma are illustrated with drawings and photographs, and their geographic distribution is discussed. The updated phylogenetic analyses also show the corrected phylogenetic positions of A. vestigipetala, as the sole representative of the clade corresponding to subgenus Minuscula, and A. trimytera, as a member of the clade corresponding to subgenus Andinia.

          Translated abstract

          Resumen Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Andinia, A. peruviana, procedente del departamento de Amazonas, Perú. Los análisis filogenéticos actualizados de las secuencias del espaciador transcrito interno nuclear (nrITS) en este estudio reafirman la naturaleza monofilética de Andinia sensu lato y apoyan aún más la circunscripción propuesta anteriormente que incorporaba los géneros Lueranthos, Masdevalliantha, Neooreophilus y Xenosia. El subgénero Aenigma de Andinia recibió un fuerte apoyo en todos los análisis. Se determinó que la nueva especie pertenece filogenéticamente al subgénero Aenigma, junto con A. barbata, A. dalstroemii, A. hirtzii, A. pogonion, A. schizopogon y A. uchucayensis. Los representantes del subgénero Aenigma confirmados filogenéticamente se ilustran con dibujos y fotografías y se discute su distribución geográfica. Los análisis filogenéticos actualizados también muestran las posiciones filogenéticas corregidas de A. vestigipetala, como único representante del clado correspondiente al subgénero Minuscula, y de A. trimytera, como miembro del clado correspondiente al subgénero Andinia.

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          Most cited references36

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          MUSCLE: multiple sequence alignment with high accuracy and high throughput.

          We describe MUSCLE, a new computer program for creating multiple alignments of protein sequences. Elements of the algorithm include fast distance estimation using kmer counting, progressive alignment using a new profile function we call the log-expectation score, and refinement using tree-dependent restricted partitioning. The speed and accuracy of MUSCLE are compared with T-Coffee, MAFFT and CLUSTALW on four test sets of reference alignments: BAliBASE, SABmark, SMART and a new benchmark, PREFAB. MUSCLE achieves the highest, or joint highest, rank in accuracy on each of these sets. Without refinement, MUSCLE achieves average accuracy statistically indistinguishable from T-Coffee and MAFFT, and is the fastest of the tested methods for large numbers of sequences, aligning 5000 sequences of average length 350 in 7 min on a current desktop computer. The MUSCLE program, source code and PREFAB test data are freely available at http://www.drive5. com/muscle.
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            MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

            MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.
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              Recent origin and rapid speciation of Neotropical orchids in the world's richest plant biodiversity hotspot

              Summary The Andean mountains of South America are the most species‐rich biodiversity hotspot worldwide with c. 15% of the world's plant species, in only 1% of the world's land surface. Orchids are a key element of the Andean flora, and one of the most prominent components of the Neotropical epiphyte diversity, yet very little is known about their origin and diversification. We address this knowledge gap by inferring the biogeographical history and diversification dynamics of the two largest Neotropical orchid groups (Cymbidieae and Pleurothallidinae), using two unparalleled, densely sampled orchid phylogenies (including more than 400 newly generated DNA sequences), comparative phylogenetic methods, geological and biological datasets. We find that the majority of Andean orchid lineages only originated in the last 20–15 million yr. Andean lineages are derived from lowland Amazonian ancestors, with additional contributions from Central America and the Antilles. Species diversification is correlated with Andean orogeny, and multiple migrations and recolonizations across the Andes indicate that mountains do not constrain orchid dispersal over long timescales. Our study sheds new light on the timing and geography of a major Neotropical diversification, and suggests that mountain uplift promotes species diversification across all elevational zones.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                lankesteriana
                Lankesteriana
                Lankesteriana
                Lankester Botanical Garden, University of Costa Rica (Cartago, Cartago, Costa Rica, Costa Rica )
                1409-3871
                December 2022
                : 22
                : 3
                : 241-262
                Affiliations
                [4] orgnameFundación Ecotonos orgdiv1Grupo de Investigación Schultes Colombia
                [3] orgnameJardín Botánico de Medellín orgdiv1Grupo de Investigación en Biodiversidad Tropical-GIBIOT Colombia
                [5] Colorado orgnameColorado College orgdiv1Department of Organismal Biology and Ecology United States
                [2] orgnameCentro de Investigación en Biología Tropical y Conservación- CINBIOTYC orgdiv1Departamento de Orquideología Perú
                [1] Lima orgnameUniversidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos orgdiv1Departamento de Gimnospermas y Monocotiledóneas, Museo de Historia Natural Peru luisocupa.horna@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S1409-38712022000300241 S1409-3871(22)02200300241
                10.15517/lank.v22i3.53319
                b73e1d0f-dc72-4228-b39e-7b0e3af8bf9c

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 International License.

                History
                : 26 July 2022
                : 03 November 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 22
                Product

                SciELO Costa Rica

                Categories
                Article

                bosques montanos,taxonomy,phylogeny,neotropics,montane forests,endemic species,Aenigma species,taxonomía,neotrópico,filogenia,especies endémicas,especies de Aenigma

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