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      Design, synthesis, and anticancer activity of novel berberine derivatives prepared via CuAAC “click” chemistry as potential anticancer agents

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          Abstract

          A series of novel derivatives of phenyl-substituted berberine triazolyls has been designed and synthesized via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition click chemistry in an attempt to develop antitumor agents. All of the compounds were evaluated for anticancer activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines, including MCF-7 (breast), SW-1990 (pancreatic), and SMMC-7721 (liver) and the noncancerous human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cell lines. The results indicated that most of the compounds displayed notable anticancer activities against the MCF-7 cells compared with berberine. Among these derivatives, compound 16 showed the most potent inhibitory activity against the SW-1990 and SMMC-7721 cell lines, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC 50) values of 8.54±1.97 μM and 11.87±1.83 μM, respectively. Compound 36 exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity against the MCF-7 cell line, with an IC 50 value of 12.57±1.96 μM. Compound 16 and compound 36 exhibited low cytotoxicity in the HUVEC cell line, with IC 50 values of 25.49±3.24 μM and 30.47±3.47 μM. Furthermore, compounds 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 32, and 36 exhibited much better selectivity than berberine toward the normal cell line HUVEC.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Nanoparticle and targeted systems for cancer therapy.

          This review explores recent work directed towards more targeted treatment of cancer, whether through more specific anti-cancer agents or through methods of delivery. These areas include delivery by avoiding the reticuloendothelial system, utilizing the enhanced permeability and retention effect and tumor-specific targeting. Treatment opportunities using antibody-targeted therapies are summarized. The ability to treat cancer by targeting delivery through angiogenesis is also discussed and antiangiogenic drugs in clinical trials are presented. Delivery methods that specifically use nanoparticles are also highlighted, including both degradable and nondegradable polymers.
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            A novel approach in the treatment of cancer: targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor.

            The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) autocrine pathway contributes to a number of processes important to cancer development and progression, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastatic spread. The critical role the EGFR plays in cancer has led to an extensive search for selective inhibitors of the EGFR signaling pathway. The results of a large body of preclinical studies and the early clinical trials thus far conducted suggest that targeting the EGFR could represent a significant contribution to cancer therapy. A variety of different approaches are currently being used to target the EGFR. The most promising strategies in clinical development include monoclonal antibodies to prevent ligand binding and small molecule inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity to inhibit autophosphorylation and downstream intracellular signaling. At least five blocking monoclonal antibodies have been developed against the EGFR. Among these, IMC-225 is a chimeric human-mouse monoclonal IgG1 antibody that has been the first anti-EGFR targeted therapy to enter clinical evaluation in cancer patients in Phase II and III studies, alone or in combination with conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A number of small molecule inhibitors of the EGFR tyrosine kinase enzymatic activity is also in development. OSI-774 and ZD1839 (Iressa) are currently in Phase II and III development, respectively. ZD1839, a p.o. active, selective quinazoline derivative has demonstrated promising in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity. Preliminary results from Phase I and II trials in patients with advanced disease demonstrate that ZD1839 and OSI-774 have an acceptable tolerability profile and promising clinical efficacy in patients with a variety of tumor types. This mini-review describes the EGFR inhibitors in clinical development.
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              Click Chemistry: Diverse Chemical Function from a Few Good Reactions.

              Examination of nature's favorite molecules reveals a striking preference for making carbon-heteroatom bonds over carbon-carbon bonds-surely no surprise given that carbon dioxide is nature's starting material and that most reactions are performed in water. Nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides are condensation polymers of small subunits stitched together by carbon-heteroatom bonds. Even the 35 or so building blocks from which these crucial molecules are made each contain, at most, six contiguous C-C bonds, except for the three aromatic amino acids. Taking our cue from nature's approach, we address here the development of a set of powerful, highly reliable, and selective reactions for the rapid synthesis of useful new compounds and combinatorial libraries through heteroatom links (C-X-C), an approach we call "click chemistry". Click chemistry is at once defined, enabled, and constrained by a handful of nearly perfect "spring-loaded" reactions. The stringent criteria for a process to earn click chemistry status are described along with examples of the molecular frameworks that are easily made using this spartan, but powerful, synthetic strategy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                06 August 2014
                : 8
                : 1047-1059
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]School of Pharmacy, FuJian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Fuzhou, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                [4 ]Diakite Biological Technology Co., Ltd, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qing-Yan Sun, Yong-Bing Cao, School of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 8187 1275, Fax +86 21 8187 1275, Email sqy_2000@ 123456163.com , ybcao@ 123456vip.sina.com

                *These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-8-1047
                10.2147/DDDT.S63228
                4128789
                © 2014 Jin et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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