Blog
About

28
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Bilingualism and Cognitive Reserve: A Critical Overview and a Plea for Methodological Innovations

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          The decline of cognitive skills throughout healthy or pathological aging can be slowed down by experiences which foster cognitive reserve (CR). Recently, some studies on Alzheimer's disease have suggested that CR may be enhanced by life-long bilingualism. However, the evidence is inconsistent and largely based on retrospective approaches featuring several methodological weaknesses. Some studies demonstrated at least 4 years of delay in dementia symptoms, while others did not find such an effect. Moreover, various methodological aspects vary from study to study. The present paper addresses contradictory findings, identifies possible lurking variables, and outlines methodological alternatives thereof. First, we characterize possible confounding factors that may have influenced extant results. Our focus is on the criteria to establish bilingualism, differences in sample design, the instruments used to examine cognitive skills, and the role of variables known to modulate life-long cognition. Second, we propose that these limitations could be largely circumvented through experimental approaches. Proficiency in the non-native language can be successfully assessed by combining subjective and objective measures; confounding variables which have been distinctively associated with certain bilingual groups (e.g., alcoholism, sleep disorders) can be targeted through relevant instruments; and cognitive status might be better tapped via robust cognitive screenings and executive batteries. Moreover, future research should incorporate tasks yielding predictable patterns of contrastive performance between bilinguals and monolinguals. Crucially, these include instruments which reveal bilingual disadvantages in vocabulary, null effects in working memory, and advantages in inhibitory control and other executive functions. Finally, paradigms tapping proactive interference (which assess the disruptive effect of long-term memory on newly learned information) could also offer useful data, since this phenomenon seems to be better managed by bilinguals and it becomes conspicuous in early stages of dementia. Such considerations may shed light not just on the relationship between bilingualism and CR, but also on more general mechanisms of cognitive compensation.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 106

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Selective changes of resting-state networks in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

          Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that prominently affects cerebral connectivity. Assessing the functional connectivity at rest, recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies reported on the existence of resting-state networks (RSNs). RSNs are characterized by spatially coherent, spontaneous fluctuations in the blood oxygen level-dependent signal and are made up of regional patterns commonly involved in functions such as sensory, attention, or default mode processing. In AD, the default mode network (DMN) is affected by reduced functional connectivity and atrophy. In this work, we analyzed functional and structural MRI data from healthy elderly (n = 16) and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 24), a syndrome of high risk for developing AD. Two questions were addressed: (i) Are any RSNs altered in aMCI? (ii) Do changes in functional connectivity relate to possible structural changes? Independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI data identified eight spatially consistent RSNs. Only selected areas of the DMN and the executive attention network demonstrated reduced network-related activity in the patient group. Voxel-based morphometry revealed atrophy in both medial temporal lobes (MTL) of the patients. The functional connectivity between both hippocampi in the MTLs and the posterior cingulate of the DMN was present in healthy controls but absent in patients. We conclude that in individuals at risk for AD, a specific subset of RSNs is altered, likely representing effects of ongoing early neurodegeneration. We interpret our finding as a proof of principle, demonstrating that functional brain disorders can be characterized by functional-disconnectivity profiles of RSNs.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task.

            Previous work has shown that bilingualism is associated with more effective controlled processing in children; the assumption is that the constant management of 2 competing languages enhances executive functions (E. Bialystok, 2001). The present research attempted to determine whether this bilingual advantage persists for adults and whether bilingualism attenuates the negative effects of aging on cognitive control in older adults. Three studies are reported that compared the performance of monolingual and bilingual middle-aged and older adults on the Simon task. Bilingualism was associated with smaller Simon effect costs for both age groups; bilingual participants also responded more rapidly to conditions that placed greater demands on working memory. In all cases the bilingual advantage was greater for older participants. It appears, therefore, that controlled processing is carried out more effectively by bilinguals and that bilingualism helps to offset age-related losses in certain executive processes. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The Composite International Diagnostic Interview. An epidemiologic Instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures.

              The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), written at the request of the World Health Organization/US Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Task Force on Psychiatric Assessment Instruments, combines questions from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule with questions designed to elicit Present State Examination items. It is fully structured to allow administration by lay interviewers and scoring of diagnoses by computer. A special Substance Abuse Module covers tobacco, alcohol, and other drug abuse in considerable detail, allowing the assessment of the quality and severity of dependence and its course. This article describes the design and development of the CIDI and the current field testing of a slightly reduced "core" version. The field test is being conducted in 19 centers around the world to assess the interviews' reliability and its acceptability to clinicians and the general populace in different cultures and to provide data on which to base revisions that may be found necessary. In addition, questions to assess International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, and the revised DSM-III diagnoses are being written. If all goes well, the CIDI will allow investigators reliably to assess mental disorders according to the most widely accepted nomenclatures in many different populations and cultures.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front Aging Neurosci
                Front. Aging Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1663-4365
                12 January 2016
                2015
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1School of Philosophy, Humanities and Arts, Institute of Philosophy, National University of San Juan San Juan, Argentina
                2Cognitive Psychology of Language and Psycholinguistics Research Group, Laboratory of Cognitive Psychology, CIPSI (CIECS-CONICET), National University of Córdoba Córdoba, Argentina
                3Laboratory of Experimental Psychology and Neuroscience, Institute of Cognitive Neurology, Favaloro University Buenos Aires, Argentina
                4National Scientific and Technical Research Council Buenos Aires, Argentina
                5Faculty of Elementary and Special Education, National University of Cuyo Mendoza, Argentina
                6UDP-INECO Foundation Core on Neuroscience, Diego Portales University Santiago, Chile
                7Universidad Autónoma del Caribe Barranquilla, Colombia
                8Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Australian Research Council Sydney, NSW, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lutz Jäncke, University of Zurich, Switzerland

                Reviewed by: Stefan Elmer, University of Zurich, Switzerland; Johannes Schröder, University of Heidelberg, Germany

                *Correspondence: Agustín Ibáñez aibanez@ 123456ineco.org.ar

                †First authors.

                Article
                10.3389/fnagi.2015.00249
                4709424
                Copyright © 2016 Calvo, García, Manoiloff and Ibáñez.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 183, Pages: 17, Words: 14973
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article