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      A SPECT-based method for dynamic imaging of the glymphatic system in rats.

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          The glymphatic system is a brain-wide waste drainage system that promotes cerebrospinal fluid circulation through the brain to remove waste metabolites. Currently, the most common methods for assessing glymphatic function are ex vivo fluorescence microscopy of brain slices, macroscopic cortical imaging, and MRI. While all these methods have been crucial for expanding our understanding of the glymphatic system, new techniques are required to overcome their specific drawbacks. Here, we evaluate SPECT/CT imaging as a tool to assess glymphatic function in different anesthesia-induced brain states using two radiolabeled tracers, [111In]-DTPA and [99mTc]-NanoScan. Using SPECT, we confirmed the existence of brain state-dependent differences in glymphatic flow and we show brain state-dependent differences of CSF flow kinetics and CSF egress to the lymph nodes. We compare SPECT and MRI for imaging glymphatic flow and find that the two imaging modalities show the same overall pattern of CSF flow, but that SPECT was specific across a greater range of tracer concentrations than MRI. Overall, we find that SPECT imaging is a promising tool for imaging the glymphatic system, and that qualities such as high sensitivity and the variety of available tracers make SPECT imaging a good alternative for glymphatic research.

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          Author and article information

          J Cereb Blood Flow Metab
          Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
          SAGE Publications
          Jul 2023
          : 43
          : 7
          [1 ] Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
          [2 ] INDIVIDRUG Research Program, University of Helsinki, Finland.
          [3 ] Department of Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Finland.
          [4 ] Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland.
          [5 ] Neuro-Immunology Group, Department of Cancer Research, Luxembourg Institute of Health, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
          [6 ] Doctoral School of Science and Technology, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
          [7 ] Translational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
          [8 ] Department of Nuclear Medicine and PET Center, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.
          [9 ] Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
          [10 ] Department of Clinical Physiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.
          [11 ] Center for Translational Neuromedicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, USA.

          rat brain,Waste clearance,[111In]-DTPA,cerebrospinal fluid dynamics,lymph nodes


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