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      Clinical Predictors Influencing the Length of Stay in Emergency Department Patients Presenting with Acute Heart Failure

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          Abstract

          Background and objectives: Acute heart failure is a common problem encountered in the emergency department (ED). More than 80% of the patients with the condition subsequently require lengthy and repeated hospitalization. In a setting with limited in-patient capacity, the patient flow is often obstructed. Appropriate disposition decisions must be made by emergency physicians to deliver effective care and alleviate ED overcrowding. This study aimed to explore clinical predictors influencing the length of stay (LOS) in patients with acute heart failure who present to the ED. Materials and Methods: We conducted prognostic factor research with a retrospective cohort design. Medical records of patients with acute heart failure who presented to the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital from January to December 2015 were assessed for eligibility. Thirteen potential clinical predictors were selected as candidates for statistical modeling based on previous reports. Multivariable Poisson regression was used to estimate the difference in LOS between patients with and without potential predictors. Results: A total of 207 patients were included in the analysis. Most patients were male with a mean age of 74.2 ± 12.5 years. The median LOS was 54.6 h (Interquartile range 17.5, 149.3 h). From the multivariable analysis, four clinical characteristics were identified as independent predictors with an increase in LOS. These were patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III/IV (+72.9 h, 95%Confidence interval (CI) 23.9, 121.8, p = 0.004), respiratory rate >24 per minute (+80.7 h, 95%CI 28.0, 133.3, p = 0.003), hemoglobin level <10 mg/dL (+60.4 h, 95%CI 8.6, 112.3, p = 0.022), and serum albumin <3.5 g/dL (+52.8 h, 95%CI 3.6, 102.0, p = 0.035). Conclusions: Poor NYHA functional class, tachypnea, anemia, and hypoalbuminemia are significant clinical predictors of patients with acute heart failure who required longer LOS.

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          Most cited references 63

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          The global health and economic burden of hospitalizations for heart failure: lessons learned from hospitalized heart failure registries.

          Heart failure is a global pandemic affecting an estimated 26 million people worldwide and resulting in more than 1 million hospitalizations annually in both the United States and Europe. Although the outcomes for ambulatory HF patients with a reduced ejection fraction (EF) have improved with the discovery of multiple evidence-based drug and device therapies, hospitalized heart failure (HHF) patients continue to experience unacceptably high post-discharge mortality and readmission rates that have not changed in the last 2 decades. In addition, the proportion of HHF patients classified as having a preserved EF continues to grow and may overtake HF with a reduced EF in the near future. However, the prognosis for HF with a preserved EF is similar and there are currently no available disease-modifying therapies. HHF registries have significantly improved our understanding of this clinical entity and remain an important source of data shaping both public policy and research efforts. The authors review global HHF registries to describe the patient characteristics, management, outcomes and their predictors, quality improvement initiatives, regional differences, and limitations of the available data. Moreover, based on the lessons learned, they also propose a roadmap for the design and conduct of future HHF registries. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure: The Task Force for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)Developed with the special contribution of the Heart Failure Association (HFA) of the ESC.

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              EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population.

               Dirk Brutsaert,  ,  J L Sendon (2006)
              The objective of the EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II) was to assess patient characteristics, aetiology, treatment, and outcome of acute heart failure (AHF) in Europe in relation to the guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of AHF published by the European Society of Cardiology. Patients hospitalized for AHF were recruited by 133 centres in 30 European countries. Three thousand five hundred and eighty patients were entered into the database by the end of August 2005. Mean age was 70 years, and 61% of patients were male. New-onset AHF (de novo AHF) was diagnosed in 37%, of which 42% was due to acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Clinical classification according to the guidelines divided AHF patients into (i) decompensated HF (65%), (ii) pulmonary oedema (16%), (iii) HF and hypertension (11%), (iv) cardiogenic shock (4%), and (v) right HF (3%). Coronary heart disease, hypertension, and atrial fibrillation were the most common underlying conditions. Arrhythmias, valvular dysfunction, and ACS were each present as precipitating factor in one-third of cases. Preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (> or =45%) was observed in 34%. Valvular disorders were common, especially mitral regurgitation (MR) which was reported on echocardiography in 80% of patients. Median length of stay was 9 days, and in-hospital mortality 6.7%. At discharge, 80% of patients were on angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, whereas 61% were taking beta-blocker medication. Decompensated HF is the most common clinical presentation of AHF patients. More than one-third of AHF patients do not have a previous history of HF, and new-onset HF is often caused by ACS. Preserved systolic function is found in a substantial proportion of the patients. The prevalence of valvular dysfunction is strikingly high and contributes to the clinical presentation. The EHFS II on AHF verified that the use of evidence-based HF medication was well adopted to clinical practice.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Medicina (Kaunas)
                medicina
                Medicina
                MDPI
                1010-660X
                1648-9144
                27 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 56
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; pungkawa@ 123456hotmail.com (P.S.); yuwares.sit@ 123456mahidol.ac.th (Y.S.); chaipool0634@ 123456hotmail.com (C.Y.); ch.ekpaiboon@ 123456gmail.com (E.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Family Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
                [3 ]Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Clinical Statistics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; jpatumanond@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani 12121, Thailand; dilokpiyayotai@ 123456yahoo.com
                [5 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand; khanchit.lik@ 123456mahidol.ac.th
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: phichayutphinyo@ 123456gmail.com ; Tel.: +66-89-8501987
                Article
                medicina-56-00434
                10.3390/medicina56090434
                7558979
                32867269
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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