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      Managing hypertension in diabetic patients – focus on trandolapril/verapamil combination

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          Abstract

          Hypertensive diabetes individuals are at higher risk for cardiovascular events and progression to end stage renal disease. Several well conducted clinical trials indicate that aggressive treatment of hypertension in individual with diabetes reduces these complications. Combinations of two or more antihypertensive drugs are frequently required to reach the target blood pressure and to improve the cardiovascular and renal outcomes in these patients. There are physiological and clinical rationales for renin-angiotensin system blockade in hypertensive diabetics. Trandolapril/verapamil sustained released (SR) is a fixed-dose combination of trandolapril and a sustained release formulation of verapamil and indicated in treatment of hypertension in patients who require more than one drug to reach target blood pressure. The antihypertensive efficacy of trandolapril/verapamil SR has been evaluated extensively in large trials. In the INVEST trial, a verapamil SR-based treatment strategy that included trandolapril in most patients was effective in reducing the primary outcome in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease. The new onset of diabetes was also significantly lower in the verapamil SR/trandolapril treatment group in comparison with those on the atenolol/hydroclorothiazide treatment group. The BErgamo NEphrologic DIabetes Complications Trial (BENEDICT) documented that in hypertensive diabetes and normoalbuminuria, trandolapril plus verapamil or trandolapril alone delayed the onset of microalbuminuria independent of their blood pressure-reducing effect. Thus, trandolapril/verapamil is an effective option for treatment of hypertensive diabetes patients requiring more than one agent to achieve target blood pressure.

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          Most cited references 72

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            The effect of irbesartan on the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

             Ryan Andersen,  P Arner,   (2001)
            Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression to diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but similar data are lacking for hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes. We evaluated the renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-II-receptor antagonist irbesartan in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. A total of 590 hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria were enrolled in this multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of irbesartan, at a dose of either 150 mg daily or 300 mg daily, and were followed for two years. The primary outcome was the time to the onset of diabetic nephropathy, defined by persistent albuminuria in overnight specimens, with a urinary albumin excretion rate that was greater than 200 microg per minute and at least 30 percent higher than the base-line level. The base-line characteristics in the three groups were similar. Ten of the 194 patients in the 300-mg group (5.2 percent) and 19 of the 195 patients in the 150-mg group (9.7 percent) reached the primary end point, as compared with 30 of the 201 patients in the placebo group (14.9 percent) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.14 to 0.61; P< 0.001] and 0.61 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.34 to 1.08; P=0.081 for the two irbesartan groups, respectively). The average blood pressure during the course of the study was 144/83 mm Hg in the placebo group, 143/83 mm Hg in the 150-mg group, and 141/83 mm Hg in the 300-mg group (P=0.004 for the comparison of systolic blood pressure between the placebo group and the combined irbesartan groups). Serious adverse events were less frequent among the patients treated with irbesartan (P=0.02). Irbesartan is renoprotective independently of its blood-pressure-lowering effect in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria.
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              Microalbuminuria predicts clinical proteinuria and early mortality in maturity-onset diabetes.

               C E Mogensen (1984)
              We studied whether microalbuminuria (30 to 140 micrograms of albumin per milliliter) would predict the later development of increased proteinuria and early mortality in Type II diabetics. During 1973, morning urine specimens of diabetic clinic patients 50 to 75 years of age whose disease had been diagnosed the age of 45 were examined for albumin level by radioimmunoassay. Seventy-six patients with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter were identified for long-term follow-up. They were compared with normal controls, diabetic patients with lower albumin concentrations (75 patients with concentrations less than 15 micrograms per milliliter and 53 with concentrations of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter), and 28 diabetic patients with higher concentrations (greater than 140). Age, duration of diabetes, treatment method, fasting blood glucose level, blood pressure, height, and weight were determined for the four diabetic groups. After nine years the group with albumin concentrations of 30 to 140 micrograms per milliliter was more likely to have clinically detectable proteinuria (greater than 400 micrograms per milliliter) than were the groups with lower concentrations. Mortality was 148 per cent higher in this group than in normal controls--comparable to the increase (116 per cent) in the group with heavy proteinuria (albumin levels greater than 140 micrograms per milliliter). In addition, mortality was increased 76 per cent in the group with albumin levels of 16 to 29 micrograms per milliliter and 37 per cent in the group with levels below 15. We conclude that microalbuminuria in patients with Type II diabetes is predictive of clinical proteinuria and increased mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Vasc Health Risk Manag
                Vascular Health and Risk Management
                Vascular Health and Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6344
                1178-2048
                August 2007
                : 3
                : 4
                : 453-465
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Clinical Research Centre for Rare Diseases “Aldo e Cele Daccò”, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research Villa Camozzi, Ranica, Italy
                [2 ]Unit of Nephrology, Azienda Ospedaliera, Ospedali Riuniti Bergamo, Italy
                [3 ]Department of Medicine, BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences Dharan, Nepal
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Piero Ruggenenti “Mario Negri” Institute for Pharmacological Research, Negri Bergamo Laboratories, Via Gavazzeni, 11 – 24125 Bergamo, Italy Tel +39 035 319 888 Fax +39 035 319 331 Email manuelap@ 123456marionegri.it
                Article
                2291330
                17969376
                © 2007 Dove Medical Press Limited. All rights reserved
                Categories
                Review

                Cardiovascular Medicine

                trandolapril, diabetes mellitus, verapamil sr, hypertension

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