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      In vitro neuroprotective potential of four medicinal plants against rotenone-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells

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          Abstract

          Background

          Lannea schweinfurthii, Zanthoxylum capense, Scadoxus puniceus and Crinum bulbispermum are used traditionally to treat neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytoprotective potential of the four plants, after induction of toxicity using rotenone, in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

          Methods

          Cytotoxicity of the plant extracts and rotenone was assessed using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Fluorometry was used to measure intracellular redox state (reactive oxygen species (ROS) and intracellular glutathione content), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and caspase-3 activity, as a marker of apoptotic cell death.

          Results

          Of the tested plants, the methanol extract of Z. capense was the least cytotoxic; LC 50 121.3 ± 6.97 μg/ml, while S. puniceus methanol extract was the most cytotoxic; LC 50 20.75 ± 1.47 μg/ml. Rotenone reduced intracellular ROS levels after 24 h exposure. Pre-treating cells with S. puniceus and C. bulbispermum extracts reversed the effects of rotenone on intracellular ROS levels. Rotenone exposure also decreased intracellular glutathione levels, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with any one of the extracts. MMP was reduced by rotenone, which was neutralized by pre-treatment with C. bulbispermum ethyl acetate extract. All extracts inhibited rotenone-induced activation of caspase-3.

          Conclusion

          The studied plants demonstrated anti-apoptotic activity and restored intracellular glutathione content following rotenone treatment, suggesting that they may possess neuroprotective properties.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Blockade of microglial activation is neuroprotective in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine mouse model of Parkinson disease.

          1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway as seen in Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder with no effective protective treatment. Consistent with a role of glial cells in PD neurodegeneration, here we show that minocycline, an approved tetracycline derivative that inhibits microglial activation independently of its antimicrobial properties, mitigates both the demise of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons and the formation of nitrotyrosine produced by MPTP. In addition, we show that minocycline not only prevents MPTP-induced activation of microglia but also the formation of mature interleukin-1beta and the activation of NADPH-oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), three key microglial-derived cytotoxic mediators. Previously, we demonstrated that ablation of iNOS attenuates MPTP-induced neurotoxicity. Now, we demonstrate that iNOS is not the only microglial-related culprit implicated in MPTP-induced toxicity because mutant iNOS-deficient mice treated with minocycline are more resistant to this neurotoxin than iNOS-deficient mice not treated with minocycline. This study demonstrates that microglial-related inflammatory events play a significant role in the MPTP neurotoxic process and suggests that minocycline may be a valuable neuroprotective agent for the treatment of PD.
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            Parkinson's disease.

             Bobby Thomas,  M. Beal (2007)
            Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by a profound and selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. Clinical manifestations of this complex disease include motor impairments involving resting tremor, bradykinesia, postural instability, gait difficulty and rigidity. Current medications only provide symptomatic relief and fail to halt the death of dopaminergic neurons. A major hurdle in development of neuroprotective therapies are due to limited understanding of disease processes leading to death of dopaminergic neurons. While the etiology of dopaminergic neuronal demise is elusive, a combination of genetic susceptibilities and environmental factors seems to play a critical role. The majority of PD cases are sporadic however, the discovery of genes linked to rare familial forms of disease (encoding alpha-synuclein, parkin, DJ-1, PINK-1 and LRRK2) and studies from experimental animal models has provided crucial insights into molecular mechanisms in disease pathogenesis and identified probable targets for therapeutic intervention. Recent findings implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative damage, abnormal protein accumulation and protein phosphorylation as key molecular mechanisms compromising dopamine neuronal function and survival as the underlying cause of pathogenesis in both sporadic and familial PD. In this review we provide an overview of the most relevant findings made by the PD research community in the last year and discuss how these significant findings improved our understanding of events leading to nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration, and identification of potential cell survival pathways that could serve as targets for neuroprotective therapies in preventing this disabling neurological illness.
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              Mechanism of toxicity in rotenone models of Parkinson's disease.

              Exposure of rats to the pesticide and complex I inhibitor rotenone reproduces features of Parkinson's disease, including selective nigrostriatal dopaminergic degeneration and alpha-synuclein-positive cytoplasmic inclusions (Betarbet et al., 2000; Sherer et al., 2003). Here, we examined mechanisms of rotenone toxicity using three model systems. In SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells, rotenone (10 nm to 1 microm) caused dose-dependent ATP depletion, oxidative damage, and death. To determine the molecular site of action of rotenone, cells were transfected with the rotenone-insensitive single-subunit NADH dehydrogenase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NDI1), which incorporates into the mammalian ETC and acts as a "replacement" for endogenous complex I. In response to rotenone, NDI1-transfected cells did not show mitochondrial impairment, oxidative damage, or death, demonstrating that these effects of rotenone were caused by specific interactions at complex I. Although rotenone caused modest ATP depletion, equivalent ATP loss induced by 2-deoxyglucose was without toxicity, arguing that bioenergetic defects were not responsible for cell death. In contrast, reducing oxidative damage with antioxidants, or by NDI1 transfection, blocked cell death. To determine the relevance of rotenone-induced oxidative damage to dopaminergic neuronal death, we used a chronic midbrain slice culture model. In this system, rotenone caused oxidative damage and dopaminergic neuronal loss, effects blocked by alpha-tocopherol. Finally, brains from rotenone-treated animals demonstrated oxidative damage, most notably in midbrain and olfactory bulb, dopaminergic regions affected by Parkinson's disease. These results, using three models of increasing complexity, demonstrate the involvement of oxidative damage in rotenone toxicity and support the evaluation of antioxidant therapies for Parkinson's disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complement Altern Med
                BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
                BioMed Central
                1472-6882
                2013
                12 December 2013
                : 13
                : 353
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Private Bag X323, Arcadia, Pretoria, South Africa
                Article
                1472-6882-13-353
                10.1186/1472-6882-13-353
                3878848
                24330357
                Copyright © 2013 Seoposengwe et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                Research Article

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