+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Discovery and Genomic Characterization of a Novel Ovine Partetravirus and a New Genotype of Bovine Partetravirus


      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Partetravirus is a recently described group of animal parvoviruses which include the human partetravirus, bovine partetravirus and porcine partetravirus (previously known as human parvovirus 4, bovine hokovirus and porcine hokovirus respectively). In this report, we describe the discovery and genomic characterization of partetraviruses in bovine and ovine samples from China. These partetraviruses were detected by PCR in 1.8% of bovine liver samples, 66.7% of ovine liver samples and 71.4% of ovine spleen samples. One of the bovine partetraviruses detected in the present samples is phylogenetically distinct from previously reported bovine partetraviruses and likely represents a novel genotype. The ovine partetravirus is a novel partetravirus and phylogenetically most related to the bovine partetraviruses. The genome organization is conserved amongst these viruses, including the presence of a putative transmembrane protein encoded by an overlapping reading frame in ORF2. Results from the present study provide further support to the classification of partetraviruses as a separate genus in Parvovirinae.

          Related collections

          Most cited references50

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Full-length human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from subtype C-infected seroconverters in India, with evidence of intersubtype recombination.

          The development of an effective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine is likely to depend on knowledge of circulating variants of genes other than the commonly sequenced gag and env genes. In addition, full-genome data are particularly limited for HIV-1 subtype C, currently the most commonly transmitted subtype in India and worldwide. Likewise, little is known about sequence variation of HIV-1 in India, the country facing the largest burden of HIV worldwide. Therefore, the objective of this study was to clone and characterize the complete genome of HIV-1 from seroconverters infected with subtype C variants in India. Cocultured HIV-1 isolates were obtained from six seroincident individuals from Pune, India, and virtually full-length HIV-1 genomes were amplified, cloned, and sequenced from each. Sequence analysis revealed that five of the six genomes were of subtype C, while one was a mosaic of subtypes A and C, with multiple breakpoints in env, nef, and the 3' long terminal repeat as determined by both maximal chi2 analysis and phylogenetic bootstrapping. Sequences were compared for preservation of known cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes. Compared with those of the HIV-1LAI sequence, 38% of well-defined CTL epitopes were identical. The proportion of nonconservative substitutions for Env, at 61%, was higher (P < 0.001) than those for Gag (24%), Pol (18%), and Nef (32%). Therefore, characterized CTL epitopes demonstrated substantial differences from subtype B laboratory strains, which were most pronounced in Env. Because these clones were obtained from Indian seroconverters, they are likely to facilitate vaccine-related efforts in India by providing potential antigens for vaccine candidates as well as for assays of vaccine responsiveness.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Cloning of a human parvovirus by molecular screening of respiratory tract samples.

            The identification of new virus species is a key issue for the study of infectious disease but is technically very difficult. We developed a system for large-scale molecular virus screening of clinical samples based on host DNA depletion, random PCR amplification, large-scale sequencing, and bioinformatics. The technology was applied to pooled human respiratory tract samples. The first experiments detected seven human virus species without the use of any specific reagent. Among the detected viruses were one coronavirus and one parvovirus, both of which were at that time uncharacterized. The parvovirus, provisionally named human bocavirus, was in a retrospective clinical study detected in 17 additional patients and associated with lower respiratory tract infections in children. The molecular virus screening procedure provides a general culture-independent solution to the problem of detecting unknown virus species in single or pooled samples. We suggest that a systematic exploration of the viruses that infect humans, "the human virome," can be initiated.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Evidence of human coronavirus HKU1 and human bocavirus in Australian children

              Undiagnosed cases of respiratory tract disease suspected of an infectious aetiology peak during the winter months. Since studies applying molecular diagnostic assays usually report reductions in the number of undiagnosed cases of infectious disease compared to traditional techniques, we applied PCR assays to investigate the role of two recently described viruses, namely human coronavirus (HCoV) HKU1 and human bocavirus (HBoV), in a hospital-based paediatric population. Both viruses were found among Australia children with upper or lower respiratory tract disease during the autumn and winter of 2004, contributing to 21.1% of all microbial diagnoses, with individual incidences of 3.1% (HCoV-HKU1) and 5.6% (HBoV) among 324 specimens. HBoV was found to coincide with another virus in more than half of all instances and displayed a single genetic lineage, whilst HCoV-HKU1 was more likely to occur in the absence of another microbe and strains could be divided into two genetic lineages which we propose be termed HCoV-HKU1 type A and type B. Children under the age of 2 years were most at risk of infection by these viruses which contribute significantly to the microbial burden among patients with respiratory tract disease during the colder months.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                27 September 2011
                : 6
                : 9
                : e25619
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                [2 ]Research Centre of Infection and Immunity, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                [3 ]State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                [4 ]Carol Yu Centre for Infection, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
                [5 ]Shenzhen-Hong Kong Institute of Infectious Diseases, Shenzhen Institute of Hepatology, Shenzhen Third People's Hospital, Shenzhen, China
                [6 ]State Key Laboratory for Molecular Virology and Genetic Engineering, Institute of Pathogen Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
                University of Kansas Medical Center, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: HT PCYW SKPL KYY. Performed the experiments: HWT JLLT. Analyzed the data: HT HWT JLLT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: XCC HL BZ BJZ PCYW SKPL KYY. Wrote the paper: HT KYY.

                Tse et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                : 1 April 2011
                : 8 September 2011
                Page count
                Pages: 8
                Research Article
                Viral Classification
                DNA viruses
                Emerging Viral Diseases
                Viral Evolution
                Veterinary Science
                Veterinary Diseases
                Veterinary Virology



                Comment on this article