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      High-dose glucocorticoids for the treatment of ipilimumab-induced hypophysitis is associated with reduced survival in patients with melanoma : Steroids and Hypophysitis Outcomes

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          The abscopal effect of local radiotherapy: using immunotherapy to make a rare event clinically relevant.

          Recently, immunologic responses to localized irradiation are proposed as mediator of systemic effects after localized radiotherapy (called the abscopal effect). Here, we give an overview of both preclinical and clinical data about the abscopal effect in particular and link them with the immunogenic properties of radiotherapy.
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            Enterocolitis in patients with cancer after antibody blockade of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4.

            Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) is an inhibitory receptor on T cells. Knocking out CTLA4 in mice causes lethal lymphoproliferation, and polymorphisms in human CTLA4 are associated with autoimmune disease. Trials of the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (MDX-010) have resulted in durable cancer regression and immune-mediated toxicities. A report on the diagnosis, pathology, treatment, clinical outcome, and significance of the immune-mediated enterocolitis seen with ipilimumab is presented. We treated 198 patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) or renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with ipilimumab. The overall objective tumor response rate was 14%. We observed several immune mediated toxicities including dermatitis, enterocolitis, hypophysitis, uveitis, hepatitis, and nephritis. Enterocolitis, defined by grade 3/4 clinical presentation and/or biopsy documentation, was the most common major toxicity (21% of patients). It presented with diarrhea, and biopsies showed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation. Most patients who developed enterocolitis responded to high-dose systemic corticosteroids. There was no evidence that steroid administration affected tumor responses. Five patients developed perforation or required colectomy. Four other patients with steroid-refractory enterocolitis appeared to respond promptly to tumor necrosis factor alpha blockade with infliximab. Objective tumor response rates in patients with enterocolitis were 36% for MM and 35% for RCC, compared with 11% and 2% in patients without enterocolitis, respectively (P = .0065 for MM and P = .0016 for RCC). CTLA4 seems to be a significant component of tolerance to tumor and in protection against immune mediated enterocolitis and these phenomena are significantly associated in cancer patients.
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              A systematic evaluation of abscopal responses following radiotherapy in patients with metastatic melanoma treated with ipilimumab.

              Case reports and preclinical data suggest radiotherapy and immunotherapy may synergize to generate "abscopal" responses outside the radiation field. This phenomenon remains relatively unexplored, prompting our systematic evaluation of metastatic melanoma patients treated with the CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab and palliative radiation therapy. We evaluated 47 consecutive metastatic melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab and 65 courses of radiation. Responses of index lesions outside the radiation field were compared before and after radiotherapy, and parameters associated with favorable response were assessed. Median survival was 28 months, with an estimated 20% 5-y survival. Index lesions shrank in 7 instances prior to radiation therapy (11%), compared with 16 instances (25%) after radiation therapy; in 11 of the latter instances (69%), the index lesion had been increasing in size prior to radiotherapy (P = 0.03). In 68% of cases, radiotherapy was associated with an improved rate of index lesion response (P = 0.006). Radiation fraction size ≤ 3 Gy was the only parameter identified associated with favorable index lesion response (P = 0.014). Our systematic review of melanoma patients treated with radiotherapy and ipilimumab suggests that a subset of patients may have more favorable out-of-field responses following treatment with radiation. Interestingly, we found that multiple fraction radiation regimens were associated with a more favorable response. These results are encouraging regarding potential synergies between radiation and immunotherapy, but suggest that attention and even prospective testing of radiation parameters critical to producing abscopal effects in human patients would be of value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer
                Cancer
                Wiley
                0008543X
                September 15 2018
                September 15 2018
                July 05 2018
                : 124
                : 18
                : 3706-3714
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Neuroendocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital; Boston Massachusetts
                [2 ]Center for Melanoma, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center; Boston Massachusetts
                Article
                10.1002/cncr.31629
                29975414
                b78cc8a0-c130-480d-8e5b-5f712c7439da
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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