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      Interleukin 18 and Interleukin 18 Binding Protein: Possible Role in Immunosuppression of Chronic Renal Failure

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          Abstract

          Although interleukin (IL)-18 is a member of the IL-1 family of ligands, IL-18 appears to have unique characteristics, particularly in the regulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) response. Th1 responses are required for tumor surveillance, killing intracellular organisms, and to provide help for antibody production. In patients with chronic renal failure, the well-known immunosuppression contributes to a failure to respond to infectious challenges and vaccinations. The most salient biological property of IL-18, linking this cytokine to the Th1 response, is its ability to induce interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In fact, IL-18 was originally identified as an IFN-γ-inducing factor, and IFN-γ production is the hallmark of the Th1 response. Dysregulation of IFN-γ production resulting from reduced activity of IL-18 would explain one of the mechanisms of immunosuppression in patients with chronic renal failure. The activity of IL-18 can be regulated by the IL-18-binding protein (IL-18BP), a glycoprotein of 40,000 daltons, which is constitutively expressed and appears to be the natural inhibitor of IL-18 activity. Unlike soluble receptors for IL-18, IL-18BP does not have a transmembrane domain; IL-18BP is a secreted protein possessing a high-affinity binding and ability to neutralize IL-18. IL-18BP was discovered in human urine and is excreted in health following glomerular filtration. With decreasing renal function, the concentrations of IL-18BP in the circulation are elevated as compared with subjects with a normal renal function, and these elevated levels may result in a decreased IL-18 activity. Because of the importance of IL-18 and IFN-γ in the Th1 response, the biology of IL-18 and IL-18BP is reviewed here in the context of the immunosuppression of chronic renal failure.

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          Most cited references 35

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          MyD88 is an adaptor protein in the hToll/IL-1 receptor family signaling pathways.

          The Toll-mediated signaling cascade using the NF-kappaB pathway has been shown to be essential for immune responses in adult Drosophila, and we recently reported that a human homolog of the Drosophila Toll protein induces various immune response genes via this pathway. We now demonstrate that signaling by the human Toll receptor employs an adaptor protein, MyD88, and induces activation of NF-kappaB via the Pelle-like kinase IRAK and the TRAF6 protein, similar to IL-1R-mediated NF-kappaB activation. However, we find that Toll and IL-1R signaling pathways are not identical with respect to AP-1 activation. Finally, our findings implicate MyD88 as a general adaptor/regulator molecule for the Toll/IL-1R family of receptors for innate immunity.
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            Activation of interferon-gamma inducing factor mediated by interleukin-1beta converting enzyme.

            The interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) converting enzyme (ICE) processes the inactive IL-1beta precursor to the proinflammatory cytokine. ICE was also shown to cleave the precursor of interferon-gamma inducing factor (IGIF) at the authentic processing site with high efficiency, thereby activating IGIF and facilitating its export. Lipopolysaccharide-activated ICE-deficient (ICE-/-) Kupffer cells synthesized the IGIF precursor but failed to process it into the active form. Interferon-gamma and IGIF were diminished in the sera of ICE-/- mice exposed to Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide. The lack of multiple proinflammatory cytokines in ICE-/- mice may account for their protection from septic shock.
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              Murine Macrophages Secrete Interferon γ upon Combined Stimulation with Interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18: A Novel Pathway of Autocrine Macrophage Activation

              Interferon (IFN)-γ, a key immunoregulatory cytokine, has been thought to be produced solely by activated T cells and natural killer cells. In this study, we show that murine bone marrow– derived macrophages (BMMΦ) secrete large amounts of IFN-γ upon appropriate stimulation. Although interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18 alone induce low levels of IFN-γ mRNA transcripts, the combined stimulation of BMMΦ with both cytokines leads to the efficient production of IFN-γ protein. The macrophage-derived IFN-γ is biologically active as shown by induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase as well as upregulation of CD40 in macrophages. Our findings uncover a novel pathway of autocrine macrophage activation by demonstrating that the macrophage is not only a key cell type responding to IFN-γ but also a potent IFN-γ–producing cell.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2003
                2003
                05 June 2003
                : 21
                : 3
                : 258-270
                Affiliations
                aUniversity of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colo., USA; bWeizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel; cMedizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany
                Article
                70699 Blood Purif 2003;21:258–270
                10.1159/000070699
                12784053
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 81, Pages: 13
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/70699
                Categories
                Proceedings of the 20th ISBP Meeting

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