Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by seasonal and annual fluctuations in humidity and temperature which are considered limiting factors for plant growth and might have played a key role in the selection of species that compose the present vegetation. After anther release, pollen is generally exposed to various changes of temperature and humidity conditions, therefore its viability and consequently successful fruit set are strongly affected by these environmental parameters. The aim of this research was to study the effect of different combinations of humidity and temperature on pollen membrane integrity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in order to investigate possible relations between pollen features and climatic conditions during flowering. This species is an evergreen perennial shrub, occurring among the sclerophyllous vegetation of Mediterranean maquis. In many areas of Southern Italy, it shows a flowering period starting from the beginning of winter and spreading throughout spring months. The analysis of data showed that duration of pollen viability of R. officinalis is enhanced by the co-occurrence of low temperature and high humidity. Moreover, these conditions are able to newly raise the viability of pollen kept at higher temperatures and lower humidity. These observations indicate that reactivation of the pollen membrane depends on low temperature apart from high humidity. Therefore "vernalization" of rosemary pollen enhances its viability, supporting that pollen behavior is adapted to winter condition and allows flowering in winter and early spring.