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      Rethinking growth factors: the case of BMP9 during vessel maturation


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          Angiogenesis is an essential process for correct development and physiology. This mechanism is tightly regulated by many signals that activate several pathways, which are constantly interacting with each other. There is mounting evidence that BMP9/ALK1 pathway is essential for a correct vessel maturation. Alterations in this pathway lead to the development of hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasias. However, little was known about the BMP9 signalling cascade until the last years. Recent reports have shown that while BMP9 arrests cell cycle, it promotes the activation of anabolic pathways to enhance endothelial maturation. In light of this evidence, a new criterion for the classification of cytokines is proposed here, based on the physiological objective of the activation of anabolic routes. Whether this activation by a growth factor is needed to sustain mitosis or to promote a specific function such as matrix formation is a critical characteristic that needs to be considered to classify growth factors. Hence, the state-of-the-art of BMP9/ALK1 signalling is reviewed here, as well as its implications in normal and pathogenic angiogenesis.

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                Author and article information

                Vasc Biol
                Vasc Biol
                Vascular Biology
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                07 February 2022
                01 February 2022
                : 4
                : 1
                : R1-R14
                [1 ]Program Against Cancer Therapeutic Resistance (ProCURE), Institut Català d’Oncologia, Hospital Duran i Reynals, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat , Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]Molecular Mechanisms and Experimental Therapy in Oncology Program (Oncobell) , Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [3 ]Departament de Ciències Fisiològiques , Facultat de Medicina i Ciències de la Salut (Campus de Bellvitge), Universitat de Barcelona, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ]Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia Unit , Internal Medicine Department, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [5 ]Institut d’Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL) , L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [6 ]Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences , Universitat de Barcelona, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to F Medina-Jover or F Viñals: ferranmedinajover@ 123456ub.edu or fvinyals@ 123456iconcologia.net
                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                : 21 January 2022
                : 07 February 2022

                bmp9,growth factors,maturation,alk1,endoglin,hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia


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