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      Cytotoxic effects of different detergent containing children's toothpastes on human gingival epithelial cells

      research-article
      1 , , 2 , 2 , 3
      BMC Oral Health
      BioMed Central
      Toothpaste, Stem cell, Annexin V, Detergent, SLS

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          Abstract

          Background

          This study aimed to evaluate possible cytotoxic effects to gingival epithelial cells exposed to children toothpastes containing different detergent.

          Methods

          Tissues required for the isolation of human gingival epithelial cells were obtained by biopsy during the extraction of the impacted third molar tooth. Toothpaste solutions of different concentrations were prepared from five different children’s toothpastes with different detergent contents. Isolated gingival epithelial cells were stimulated with experimental groups consisting of toothpaste solutions (Colgate, Sensodyne, Splat, Nenedent, Perlodent) at different concentrations and a control group consisting of complete Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium. After the experiments, cell viability was evaluated using flow cytometry. 2 Way ANOVA was used to see the interaction effect of the main effects of toothpaste solution and concentration factors. Pairwise comparisons were made by Tukey post hoc tests. In the study, the significance level was taken as 0.05.

          Results

          As a result of the analysis, it was seen that the toothpaste solution and concentration factors and the interactions of these 2 factors were effective on the viable, early apoptotic, late apoptotic and necrotic cell rates. The statistically highest live cell ratios were detected in Splat’s toothpaste solutions (90.14% at 0.4% concentration) after the control group (90.82%) and the group with the lowest viability values was determined in Colgate group (75.74% at 0.4% concentration) ( p < 0.05).

          Conclusions

          According to the results of the study, it was observed that toothpastes containing SLS affected the viability of cells more negatively than toothpastes with other detergent contents.

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          Most cited references61

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          Dental plaque formation

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            In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation of a novel root repair material.

            This study examined the effect of a new bioactive dentin substitute material (Biodentine) on the viability of human gingival fibroblasts.
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              Dental plaque development on a hydroxyapatite disk in young adults observed by using a barcoded pyrosequencing approach

              Dental plaque is a dynamic microbial biofilm ecosystem that comprises hundreds of species including difficult-to-cultivate bacteria. We observed the assembly of a plaque bacterial community through 16S rRNA gene analysis. Plaque samples that accumulated on a hydroxyapatite disk for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 days with saliva on day 0 were collected from 19 young adults using a removable resin splint. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the total bacterial amount gradually increased and reached a plateau on day 4. Barcoded pyrosequencing analysis revealed that the microbial richness and diversity particularly increased between days 5 and 7. A principal coordinate analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac showed the community assembly in a time-related manner, which became increasingly similar to the salivary microbiota. Facultative anaerobic bacteria such as Streptococcus, Neisseria, Abiotrophia, Gemella, and Rothia were predominant in the plaque bacterial community in the earlier days, whereas obligate anaerobes, such as Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Prevotella, and Capnocytophaga showed increased dominance on later days. UniFrac analysis also demonstrated that dental caries experience had a significant effect on the assembly process. Our results reveal the development pattern of the plaque bacterial community as well as the inter-individual differences associated with dental caries experience.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sinembirant@iuc.edu.tr
                yazgul.duran@gmail.com
                tuncakkoc@gmail.com
                figen.seymen@altinbas.edu.tr
                Journal
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BMC Oral Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6831
                9 March 2022
                9 March 2022
                2022
                : 22
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.506076.2, ISNI 0000 0004 1797 5496, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, , Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, ; Istanbul, Turkey
                [2 ]GRID grid.16477.33, ISNI 0000 0001 0668 8422, Department of Pediatric Allergy-Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, , Marmara University, ; Istanbul, Turkey
                [3 ]GRID grid.449305.f, ISNI 0000 0004 0399 5023, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, , Altinbas University, ; Istanbul, Turkey
                Article
                2089
                10.1186/s12903-022-02089-2
                8908683
                35264124
                b7bca05d-9a03-4e0d-a272-d0035c970117
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004006, Bilimsel Araştirma Projeleri Birimi, Istanbul Üniversitesi;
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Dentistry
                toothpaste,stem cell,annexin v,detergent,sls
                Dentistry
                toothpaste, stem cell, annexin v, detergent, sls

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