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      Cardiovascular Risk at the Menopause – Role of Sexual Steroids

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          From epidemiological and experimental evidence it has been concluded that ovarian steroids have a large variety of cardiovascular effects. Among these are a direct action on the vascular wall, alterations in hemodynamics, modification of protein metabolism involved in the arteriosclerosis process, and alterations in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Some of the earlier epidemiological studies indicated an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in estrogen users, but later on the majority of the published studies reported consistently a striking decrease in CVD by about 50%. The consistency in the positive results observed in successive epidemiological reports from various countries strongly suggest a protective effect of hormone replacement therapy on CVD morbidity. However, the direct demonstration of a protective effect of estrogens on CVD morbidity and mortality can only be made by long-term prospective controlled studies.

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          Author and article information

          Horm Res Paediatr
          Hormone Research in Paediatrics
          S. Karger AG
          05 December 2008
          : 43
          : 1-3
          : 58-63
          Ciba-Geigy and Division of Endocrinology, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland
          184238 Horm Res 1995;43:58–63
          © 1995 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 6
          Endocrine Functions and Ageing


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