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      Complications of Bariatric Surgery: What You Can Expect to See in Your GI Practice

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      The American Journal of Gastroenterology

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Most cited references 126

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          Bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          About 5% of the US population is morbidly obese. This disease remains largely refractory to diet and drug therapy, but generally responds well to bariatric surgery. To determine the impact of bariatric surgery on weight loss, operative mortality outcome, and 4 obesity comorbidities (diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea). Electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Current Contents, and the Cochrane Library databases plus manual reference checks of all articles on bariatric surgery published in the English language between 1990 and 2003. Two levels of screening were used on 2738 citations. A total of 136 fully extracted studies, which included 91 overlapping patient populations (kin studies), were included for a total of 22,094 patients. Nineteen percent of the patients were men and 72.6% were women, with a mean age of 39 years (range, 16-64 years). Sex was not reported for 1537 patients (8%). The baseline mean body mass index for 16 944 patients was 46.9 (range, 32.3-68.8). A random effects model was used in the meta-analysis. The mean (95% confidence interval) percentage of excess weight loss was 61.2% (58.1%-64.4%) for all patients; 47.5% (40.7%-54.2%) for patients who underwent gastric banding; 61.6% (56.7%-66.5%), gastric bypass; 68.2% (61.5%-74.8%), gastroplasty; and 70.1% (66.3%-73.9%), biliopancreatic diversion or duodenal switch. Operative mortality (< or =30 days) in the extracted studies was 0.1% for the purely restrictive procedures, 0.5% for gastric bypass, and 1.1% for biliopancreatic diversion or duodenal switch. Diabetes was completely resolved in 76.8% of patients and resolved or improved in 86.0%. Hyperlipidemia improved in 70% or more of patients. Hypertension was resolved in 61.7% of patients and resolved or improved in 78.5%. Obstructive sleep apnea was resolved in 85.7% of patients and was resolved or improved in 83.6% of patients. Effective weight loss was achieved in morbidly obese patients after undergoing bariatric surgery. A substantial majority of patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and obstructive sleep apnea experienced complete resolution or improvement.
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            Lifestyle, diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors 10 years after bariatric surgery.

            Weight loss is associated with short-term amelioration and prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular risk, but whether these benefits persist over time is unknown. The prospective, controlled Swedish Obese Subjects Study involved obese subjects who underwent gastric surgery and contemporaneously matched, conventionally treated obese control subjects. We now report follow-up data for subjects (mean age, 48 years; mean body-mass index, 41) who had been enrolled for at least 2 years (4047 subjects) or 10 years (1703 subjects) before the analysis (January 1, 2004). The follow-up rate for laboratory examinations was 86.6 percent at 2 years and 74.5 percent at 10 years. After two years, the weight had increased by 0.1 percent in the control group and had decreased by 23.4 percent in the surgery group (P<0.001). After 10 years, the weight had increased by 1.6 percent and decreased by 16.1 percent, respectively (P<0.001). Energy intake was lower and the proportion of physically active subjects higher in the surgery group than in the control group throughout the observation period. Two- and 10-year rates of recovery from diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension, and hyperuricemia were more favorable in the surgery group than in the control group, whereas recovery from hypercholesterolemia did not differ between the groups. The surgery group had lower 2- and 10-year incidence rates of diabetes, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperuricemia than the control group; differences between the groups in the incidence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertension were undetectable. As compared with conventional therapy, bariatric surgery appears to be a viable option for the treatment of severe obesity, resulting in long-term weight loss, improved lifestyle, and, except for hypercholesterolemia, amelioration in risk factors that were elevated at baseline. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              Metabolic/bariatric surgery worldwide 2011.

              Metabolic/bariatric procedures for the treatment of morbid obesity, as well as for type 2 diabetes, are among the most commonly performed gastrointestinal operations today, justifying periodic assessment of the numerical status of metabolic/bariatric surgery and its relative distribution of procedures. An email questionnaire was sent to the leadership of the 50 nations or national groupings in the International Federation for the Surgery of Obesity and Metabolic Disorders (IFSO). Outcome measurements were numbers of metabolic/bariatric operations and surgeons, types of procedures performed, and trends from 2003 to 2008 to 2011 worldwide and in the regional groupings of Europe, USA/Canada, Latin/South America, and Asia/Pacific. Response rate was 84%. The global total number of procedures in 2011 was 340,768; the global total number of metabolic/bariatric surgeons was 6,705. The most commonly performed procedures were Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) 46.6%; sleeve gastrectomy (SG) 27.8%; adjustable gastric banding (AGB) 17.8%; and biliopancreatic diversion/duodenal switch (BPD/DS) 2.2%. The global trends from 2003 to 2008 to 2011 showed a decrease in RYGB: 65.1 to 49.0 to 46.6%; an increase, followed by a steep decline, in AGB: 24.4 to 42.3 to 17.8%; and a marked increase in SG: 0.0 to 5.3 to 27.89%. BPD/DS declined: 6.1 to 4.9 to 2.1%. The trends from the four IFSO regions differed, except for the universal increase in SG. Periodic metabolic/bariatric surgery surveys add to the knowledge and understanding of all physicians caring for morbidly obese patients. The salient message of the 2011 assessment is that SG (0.0% in 2008) has markedly increased in prevalence.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The American Journal of Gastroenterology
                Am J Gastroenterol
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                0002-9270
                1572-0241
                August 15 2017
                November 2017
                August 15 2017
                November 2017
                : 112
                : 11
                : 1640-1655
                Article
                10.1038/ajg.2017.241
                © 2017
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