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      Impact of Perinatal Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Infection on Early Health Outcomes among Infants Born from 2020 to 2021 in British Columbia, Canada


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          The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic has impacted healthcare services and outcomes. We aimed to investigate healthcare resource utilization and early health outcomes of infants born to mothers with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection.


          The study included all infants born alive between February 1, 2020, and April 30, 2021, in British Columbia. We used linked provincial population-based databases including data on COVID-19 testing, birth, and health information for up to one year from birth. Perinatal COVID-19 exposure for infants was defined being born to mothers with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy or at delivery. Cases of COVID-19-exposed infants were matched with up to four non‐exposed infants by birth month, sex, birthplace, and gestational age in weeks. Outcomes included hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and in-/outpatient diagnoses. Outcomes were compared between groups using conditional logistic regression and linear mixed effects models including effect modification by maternal residence.


          Among 52,711 live births, 484 infants had perinatal exposure to SARS-CoV-2, an incidence rate of 9.18 per 1000 live births. Exposed infants (54.6% male) had a mean gestational age of 38.5 weeks, and 99% were born in hospital. Proportions of infants requiring at least one hospitalization (8.1% vs. 5.1%) and at least one emergency department visit (16.9% vs. 12.9%) were higher among the exposed vs. unexposed infants, respectively. Among infants from the urban area, those with exposure were more likely to have respiratory infectious diseases (odds ratio: 1.74; 95% confidence intervals: 1.07, 2.84), compared with those without exposure. Interpretation. In our cohort, infants born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection have increased healthcare demands in their early infancy, which warrants further investigation.

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          Maternal and Neonatal Morbidity and Mortality Among Pregnant Women With and Without COVID-19 Infection : The INTERCOVID Multinational Cohort Study

          This cohort study assesses the association between COVID-19 and maternal and neonatal outcomes in pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis compared with concomitantly enrolled pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis. Question To what extent does COVID-19 in pregnancy alter the risks of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with pregnant individuals without COVID-19? Findings In this multinational cohort study of 2130 pregnant women in 18 countries, women with COVID-19 diagnosis were at increased risk of a composite maternal morbidity and mortality index. Newborns of women with COVID-19 diagnosis had significantly higher severe neonatal morbidity index and severe perinatal morbidity and mortality index compared with newborns of women without COVID-19 diagnosis. Meaning This study indicates a consistent association between pregnant individuals with COVID-19 diagnosis and higher rates of adverse outcomes, including maternal mortality, preeclampsia, and preterm birth compared with pregnant individuals without COVID-19 diagnosis. Importance Detailed information about the association of COVID-19 with outcomes in pregnant individuals compared with not-infected pregnant individuals is much needed. Objective To evaluate the risks associated with COVID-19 in pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes compared with not-infected, concomitant pregnant individuals. Design, Setting, and Participants In this cohort study that took place from March to October 2020, involving 43 institutions in 18 countries, 2 unmatched, consecutive, not-infected women were concomitantly enrolled immediately after each infected woman was identified, at any stage of pregnancy or delivery, and at the same level of care to minimize bias. Women and neonates were followed up until hospital discharge. Exposures COVID-19 in pregnancy determined by laboratory confirmation of COVID-19 and/or radiological pulmonary findings or 2 or more predefined COVID-19 symptoms. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome measures were indices of (maternal and severe neonatal/perinatal) morbidity and mortality; the individual components of these indices were secondary outcomes. Models for these outcomes were adjusted for country, month entering study, maternal age, and history of morbidity. Results A total of 706 pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis and 1424 pregnant women without COVID-19 diagnosis were enrolled, all with broadly similar demographic characteristics (mean [SD] age, 30.2 [6.1] years). Overweight early in pregnancy occurred in 323 women (48.6%) with COVID-19 diagnosis and 554 women (40.2%) without. Women with COVID-19 diagnosis were at higher risk for preeclampsia/eclampsia (relative risk [RR], 1.76; 95% CI, 1.27-2.43), severe infections (RR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.63-7.01), intensive care unit admission (RR, 5.04; 95% CI, 3.13-8.10), maternal mortality (RR, 22.3; 95% CI, 2.88-172), preterm birth (RR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.30-1.94), medically indicated preterm birth (RR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.56-2.51), severe neonatal morbidity index (RR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.69-4.18), and severe perinatal morbidity and mortality index (RR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.66-2.75). Fever and shortness of breath for any duration was associated with increased risk of severe maternal complications (RR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.92-3.40) and neonatal complications (RR, 4.97; 95% CI, 2.11-11.69). Asymptomatic women with COVID-19 diagnosis remained at higher risk only for maternal morbidity (RR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54) and preeclampsia (RR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.01-2.63). Among women who tested positive (98.1% by real-time polymerase chain reaction), 54 (13%) of their neonates tested positive. Cesarean delivery (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.18-3.91) but not breastfeeding (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85) was associated with increased risk for neonatal test positivity. Conclusions and Relevance In this multinational cohort study, COVID-19 in pregnancy was associated with consistent and substantial increases in severe maternal morbidity and mortality and neonatal complications when pregnant women with and without COVID-19 diagnosis were compared. The findings should alert pregnant individuals and clinicians to implement strictly all the recommended COVID-19 preventive measures.
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            Outcome of Coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID 1 -19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

            Objective The aim of this systematic review was to report pregnancy and perinatal outcomes of Coronavirus (CoV) spectrum infections, and particularly COVID-19 disease due to SARS-COV-2 infection during pregnancy. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cinahl and Clinicaltrials.gov databases were searched electronically utilizing combinations of word variants for “coronavirus” or “severe acute respiratory syndrome” or “SARS” or “Middle East respiratory syndrome” or “MERS” or “COVID-19” and “pregnancy”. The search and selection criteria were restricted to English language. Study eligibility criteria Inclusion criteria were pregnant women with a confirmed Coronavirus related illness, defined as either SARS, MERS or COVID-19. Study appraisal and synthesis methods We used meta-analyses of proportions to combine data and reported pooled proportions. The pregnancy outcomes observed included miscarriage, preterm birth, pre-eclampsia, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, fetal growth restriction, and mode of delivery. The perinatal outcomes observed were fetal distress, Apgar score 90% of whom also had pneumonia, PTB is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. Miscarriage, preeclampsia, cesarean, and perinatal death (7-11%) were also more common than in the general population. There have been no published cases of clinical evidence of vertical transmission. Evidence is accumulating rapidly, so these data may need to be updated soon. The findings from this study can guide and enhance prenatal counseling of women with COVID-19 infection occurring during pregnancy.
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              Association of Maternal SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pregnancy With Neonatal Outcomes


                Author and article information

                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses et de la Microbiologie Médicale
                5 May 2023
                : 2023
                : 9968774
                1Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                2Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
                3Research Informatics, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                4Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada
                5Department of Pediatrics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Mohd Adnan

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Lindsay L. Richter et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 19 December 2022
                : 10 February 2023
                : 15 March 2023
                Funded by: Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research
                Award ID: COV-2020-1080
                Research Article


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