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      Indopolystoma n. gen. (Monogenea, Polystomatidae) with the description of three new species and reassignment of eight known Polystoma species from Asian frogs (Anura, Rhacophoridae) Translated title: Indopolystoma n. gen. (Monogenea, Polystomatidae) avec description de trois nouvelles espèces et réaffectation de huit espèces connues de Polystoma parasites de grenouilles asiatiques (Anura, Rhacophoridae)

      1 , * , 1 , 2 , 3 , 1 , 4

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      Indopolystoma, Polystoma, Asia, Neobatrachia, Rhacophoridae

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          Abstract

          The polystomes (Monogenea, Polystomatidae) radiated across semi-aquatic tetrapods including all three amphibian orders, freshwater turtles and the hippopotamus. Prior to this study, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the most diverse and widespread genus, Polystoma, was not monophyletic; a lineage comprising four undescribed species from the bladder of Zhangixalus spp. (Rhacophoridae) in Asia occupied a deep phylogenetic position. Regarding vicariance biogeography and molecular dating, the origin of this lineage is correlated with the breakup of Gondwanaland in the Mesozoic period. Based on a Bayesian analysis of four concatenated genes (18S, 28S, COI and 12S) and morphological evidence, one new genus, Indopolystoma n. gen., and three new species, sampled in Japan and China, are described here: Indopolystoma viridi n. sp. from Z. viridis of Japan, Indopolystoma elongatum n. sp. from Z. arboreus of Japan, and Indopolystoma parvum n. sp. from Z. omeimontis of China. Indopolystoma is unique amongst polystome genera infecting anurans by possessing a small haptor relative to the body size, posteriormost marginal hooklet C1 much bigger than hooklets C2–C8 with conspicuous broad blade and guard and a pair of hamuli lacking a deep notch. Eight species of Asian Polystoma, all from rhacophorids, are transferred as Indopolystoma carvirostris (Fan, Li & He, 2008) n. comb., I. hakgalense (Crusz & Ching, 1975) n. comb., I. indicum (Diengdoh & Tandon, 1991) n. comb., I. leucomystax (Zhang & Long, 1987) n. comb., I. mutus (Meng, Song & Ding, 2010) n. comb., I. pingbianensis (Fan, Wang & Li, 2004) n. comb., I. rhacophori (Yamaguti, 1936) n. comb., and I. zuoi (Shen, Wang & Fan, 2013) n. comb.

          Translated abstract

          Les polystomes (Monogenea, Polystomatidae) se sont diversifiés sur des tétrapodes semi-aquatiques, notamment les trois ordres d’amphibiens, les tortues d’eau douce et l’hippopotame. Avant cette étude, des analyses phylogénétiques avaient révélé que le genre le plus diversifié et le plus répandu, Polystoma, n’était pas monophylétique ; une lignée comprenant quatre espèces non décrites de la vessie de Zhangixalus spp. (Rhacophoridae) en Asie occupait une position phylogénétique profonde. En ce qui concerne la biogéographie de vicariance et la datation moléculaire, l’origine de cette lignée est corrélée à l’éclatement du Gondwana au Mésozoïque. D’après une analyse bayésienne de quatre gènes concaténés (18S, 28S, COI et 12S) et des preuves morphologiques, un nouveau genre, Indopolystoma n. gen. et trois nouvelles espèces échantillonnées au Japon et en Chine sont décrites ici : Indopolystoma viridi n. sp. de Z. viridis du Japon, Indopolystoma elongatum n. sp. de Z. arboreus du Japon et Indopolystoma parvum n. sp. de Z. omeimontis de Chine. Indopolystoma est unique parmi les genres de polystomes infectant les anoures. Il possède un hapteur petit par rapport à la taille du corps, un crocheton le plus postérieur C1 beaucoup plus gros que les crochetons C2 à C8, avec lame et garde bien visibles, ainsi qu’une paire d’hamuli dépourvus d’encoche profonde. Huit espèces de polystomes asiatiques, toutes issues de Rhacophoridae, sont transférées comme Indopolystoma carvirostris (Fan, Li & He, 2008) n. comb., I. hakgalense (Crusz et Ching, 1975) n. comb., I. indicum (Diengdoh & Tandon, 1991) n. comb., I. leucomystax (Zhang & Long, 1987) n. comb., I. mutus (Meng, Song & Ding, 2010) n. comb., I. pingbianensis (Fan, Wang et Li, 2004) n. comb., I. rhacophori (Yamaguti, 1936) n. comb. et I. zuoi (Shen, Wang et Fan, 2013) n. comb.

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          Most cited references 52

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          MRBAYES: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees.

          The program MRBAYES performs Bayesian inference of phylogeny using a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo. MRBAYES, including the source code, documentation, sample data files, and an executable, is available at http://brahms.biology.rochester.edu/software.html.
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            Timing of hot spot--related volcanism and the breakup of madagascar and India.

            Widespread basalts and rhyolites were erupted in Madagascar during the Late Cretaceous. These are considered to be related to the Marion hot spot and the breakup of Madagascar and Greater India. Seventeen argon-40/argon-39 age determinations reveal that volcanic rocks and dikes from the 1500-kilometer-long rifted eastern margin of Madagascar were emplaced rapidly (mean age = 87.6 +/- 0.6 million years ago) and that the entire duration of Cretaceous volcanism on the island was no more than 6 million years. The evidence suggests that the thick lava pile at Volcan de l'Androy in the south of the island marks the focal point of the Marion hot spot at approximately 88 million years ago and that this mantle plume was instrumental in causing continental breakup.
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              Stratigraphic evidence for an early collision between northwest India and Asia

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2019
                20 November 2019
                : 26
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2019/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Unit for Environmental Sciences and Management, North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus Private Bag X6001 2520 Potchefstroom South Africa
                [2 ] University of Perpignan Via Domitia, Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditerranéens, UMR 5110 66860 Perpignan France
                [3 ] CNRS, Centre de Formation et de Recherche sur les Environnements Méditerranéens, UMR 5110 66860 Perpignan France
                [4 ] South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity Private Bag 1015 6140 Grahamstown South Africa
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: amirachaabene@ 123456hotmail.fr
                Article
                parasite190082 10.1051/parasite/2019067
                10.1051/parasite/2019067
                6865761
                31746733
                © A. Chaabane et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2019

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 54, Pages: 18
                Categories
                Research Article

                rhacophoridae, indopolystoma, polystoma, asia, neobatrachia

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