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      Emerging role of exosomes as promising diagnostic tool for cancer

      Cancer Gene Therapy

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Most cited references 29

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          The microRNA spectrum in 12 body fluids.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that play an important role in regulating various biological processes through their interaction with cellular messenger RNAs. Extracellular miRNAs in serum, plasma, saliva, and urine have recently been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions including cancer. With the goal of assessing the distribution of miRNAs and demonstrating the potential use of miRNAs as biomarkers, we examined the presence of miRNAs in 12 human body fluids and urine samples from women in different stages of pregnancy or patients with different urothelial cancers. Using quantitative PCR, we conducted a global survey of the miRNA distribution in these fluids. miRNAs were present in all fluids tested and showed distinct compositions in different fluid types. Several of the highly abundant miRNAs in these fluids were common among multiple fluid types, and some of the miRNAs were enriched in specific fluids. We also observed distinct miRNA patterns in the urine samples obtained from individuals with different physiopathological conditions. MicroRNAs are ubiquitous in all the body fluid types tested. Fluid type-specific miRNAs may have functional roles associated with the surrounding tissues. In addition, the changes in miRNA spectra observed in the urine samples from patients with different urothelial conditions demonstrates the potential for using concentrations of specific miRNAs in body fluids as biomarkers for detecting and monitoring various physiopathological conditions.
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            Shedding light on the cell biology of extracellular vesicles

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              Glypican-1 identifies cancer exosomes and detects early pancreatic cancer.

              Exosomes are lipid-bilayer-enclosed extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and nucleic acids. They are secreted by all cells and circulate in the blood. Specific detection and isolation of cancer-cell-derived exosomes in the circulation is currently lacking. Using mass spectrometry analyses, we identify a cell surface proteoglycan, glypican-1 (GPC1), specifically enriched on cancer-cell-derived exosomes. GPC1(+) circulating exosomes (crExos) were monitored and isolated using flow cytometry from the serum of patients and mice with cancer. GPC1(+) crExos were detected in the serum of patients with pancreatic cancer with absolute specificity and sensitivity, distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with a benign pancreatic disease from patients with early- and late-stage pancreatic cancer. Levels of GPC1(+) crExos correlate with tumour burden and the survival of pre- and post-surgical patients. GPC1(+) crExos from patients and from mice with spontaneous pancreatic tumours carry specific KRAS mutations, and reliably detect pancreatic intraepithelial lesions in mice despite negative signals by magnetic resonance imaging. GPC1(+) crExos may serve as a potential non-invasive diagnostic and screening tool to detect early stages of pancreatic cancer to facilitate possible curative surgical therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cancer Gene Therapy
                Cancer Gene Ther
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0929-1903
                1476-5500
                September 3 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41417-019-0136-4
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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