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      Protein-bound solute removal during extended multipass versus standard hemodialysis

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          Abstract

          Background

          Multipass hemodialysis (MPHD) is a recently described dialysis modality, involving the use of small volumes of dialysate which are repetitively recycled. Dialysis regimes of 8 hours for six days a week using this device result in an increased removal of small water soluble solutes and middle molecules compared to standard hemodialysis (SHD). Since protein-bound solutes (PBS) exert important pathophysiological effects, we investigated whether MPHD results in improved removal of PBS as well.

          Methods

          A cross-over study (Clinical Trial NCT01267760) was performed in nine stable HD patients. At midweek a single dialysis session was performed with either 4 hours SHD using a dialysate flow of 500 mL/min or 8 hours MPHD with a dialysate volume of 50% of estimated body water volume. Blood and dialysate samples were taken every hour to determine concentrations of p-cresylglucuronide (PCG), hippuric acid (HA), indole acetic acid (IAA), indoxyl sulfate (IS), and p-cresylsulfate (PCS). Dialyser extraction ratio, reduction ratio, and solute removal were calculated for these solutes.

          Results

          Already at 60 min after dialysis start, the extraction ratio in the hemodialyser was a factor 1.4-4 lower with MPHD versus SHD, resulting in significantly smaller reduction ratios and lower solute removal within a single session. Even when extrapolating our findings to 3 times 4 h SHD and 6 times 8 h MPHD per week, the latter modality was at best similar in terms of total solute removal for most protein-bound solutes, and worse for the highly protein-bound solutes IS and PCS. When efficiency was calculated as solute removal/litre of dialysate used, MPHD was found superior to SHD.

          Conclusion

          When high water consumption is a concern, a treatment regimen of 6 times/week 8 h MPHD might be an alternative for 3 times/week 4 h SHD, but at the expense of a lower total solute removal of highly protein-bound solutes.

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          Most cited references34

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          Serum indoxyl sulfate is associated with vascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients.

          As a major component of uremic syndrome, cardiovascular disease is largely responsible for the high mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have evidenced an association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS, a protein-bound uremic toxin) and vascular alterations. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum IS, vascular calcification, vascular stiffness, and mortality in a cohort of CKD patients. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; 60% male) at different stages of CKD (8% at stage 2, 26.5% at stage 3, 26.5% at stage 4, 7% at stage 5, and 32% at stage 5D) were enrolled. Baseline IS levels presented an inverse relationship with renal function and a direct relationship with aortic calcification and pulse wave velocity. During the follow-up period (605 +/- 217 d), 25 patients died, mostly because of cardiovascular events (n = 18). In crude survival analyses, the highest IS tertile was a powerful predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The predictive power of IS for death was maintained after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, albumin, hemoglobin, phosphate, and aortic calcification. The study presented here indicates that IS may have a significant role in the vascular disease and higher mortality observed in CKD patients.
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            Oxidative stress with an activation of the renin-angiotensin system in human vascular endothelial cells as a novel mechanism of uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction.

            Oxidative stress is known to be a major mechanism of endothelial dysfunction, which plays a key role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Although uric acid is one of the most important antioxidants, recent studies have suggested that uric acid may have a causal role in endothelial dysfunction. In order to understand the paradoxical association of uric acid with oxidative stress and vascular disease, we investigated whether uric acid induced oxidative stress in human vascular endothelial cells. We also examined whether uric acid-induced changes in redox status were related to aging and death of endothelial cells or an activation of local renin-angiotensin system, another mediator of endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial senescence and apoptosis were evaluated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining and annexin V-propidium iodide staining in primary isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Production of reactive oxygen species was assessed by dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining. mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme and the receptors of angiotensin II was evaluated by real-time PCR, and angiotensin II levels were measured in uric acid-stimulated HUVECs. Uric acid-induced senescence and apoptosis in HUVECs at concentrations more than 6 and 9 mg/dl, respectively. Uric acid-induced alterations in cell proliferation, senescence and apoptosis were blocked by probenecid, enalaprilat or telmisartan. Uric acid significantly increased production of reactive oxygen species beginning at 5 min, and uric acid-induced senescence and apoptosis of HUVECs were ameliorated by N-acetylcysteine or tempol. Uric acid also upregulated the expression of angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II receptors and increased angiotensin II levels, which was ameliorated with tempol. Uric acid-induced aging and death of human endothelial cells are medicated by local activation of oxidative stress and the renin-angiotensin system, which provides a novel mechanism of uric acid-induced endothelial dysfunction. Therapies targeting uric acid maybe beneficial in cardiovascular disease.
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              Free p-cresylsulphate is a predictor of mortality in patients at different stages of chronic kidney disease.

              Uraemic toxins are considered to be emerging mortality risk factors in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. p-Cresol (a prototype protein-bound uraemic retention solute) has been shown to exert toxic effects in vitro. Recently, it has been demonstrated that p-cresol is present in plasma as its sulphate conjugate, p-cresylsulphate. The present study evaluated the distribution of free and total p-cresylsulphate and sought to determine whether these parameters were associated with vascular calcification, arterial stiffness and mortality risk in a cohort of CKD patients. One hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; males: 60%) at different stages of CKD (8% at Stage 2, 26.5% at Stage 3, 26.5% at Stage 4, 7% at Stage 5 and 32% at Stage 5D) were enrolled in this study. Baseline total and free p-cresylsulphate presented an inverse relationship with renal function and were significantly associated with vascular calcification. During the study period (mean follow-up period: 779 +/- 185 days), 38 patients died [including 22 from cardiovascular (CV) causes]. In crude survival analyses, free (but not total) p-cresylsulphate was shown to be a predictor of overall and CV death. Higher free p-cresylsulphate levels (>0.051 mg/100 mL; median) were associated with mortality independently of well-known predictors of survival such as age, vascular calcification, anaemia and inflammation. Serum levels of free and total p-cresylsulphate (the main in vivo circulating metabolites of p-cresol) were elevated in later CKD stages. However, only free p-cresylsulphate seems to be a predictor of survival in CKD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                sunny.eloot@ugent.be
                wim.vanbiesen@ugent.be
                metaxels@rm.dk
                griet.glorieux@ugent.be
                d110582@dadlnet.dk
                Journal
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrol
                BMC Nephrology
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2369
                18 April 2015
                18 April 2015
                2015
                : 16
                : 57
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Nephrology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
                [ ]Institute of Public Health, Aarhus University, Nordre Ringgade 1, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark
                [ ]Flexdialysis Aps, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [ ]Department of Nephrology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Article
                56
                10.1186/s12882-015-0056-y
                4404563
                b8076ea0-85d6-4595-9be5-93a2f6e93299
                © Eloot et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2015

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 12 January 2015
                : 15 April 2015
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2015

                Nephrology
                solute removal,recirculation,water consumption
                Nephrology
                solute removal, recirculation, water consumption

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