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      Lupus nephritis

      Kidney International

      Springer Nature

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          Lymphoproliferation disorder in mice explained by defects in Fas antigen that mediates apoptosis.

          Fas antigen is a cell-surface protein that mediates apoptosis. It is expressed in various tissues including the thymus and has structural homology with a number of cell-surface receptors, including tumour necrosis factor receptor and nerve growth factor receptor. Mice carrying the lymphoproliferation (lpr) mutation have defects in the Fas antigen gene. The lpr mice develop lymphadenopathy and suffer from a systemic lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disease, indicating an important role for Fas antigen in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus.
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            Bcl-2-deficient mice demonstrate fulminant lymphoid apoptosis, polycystic kidneys, and hypopigmented hair.

            bcl-2-/-mice complete embryonic development, but display growth retardation and early mortality postnatally. Hematopoiesis including lymphocyte differentiation is initially normal, but thymus and spleen undergo massive apoptotic involution. Thymocytes require an apoptotic signal to manifest accelerated cell death. Renal failure results from severe polycystic kidney disease characterized by dilated proximal and distal tubular segments and hyperproliferation of epithelium and interstitium. bcl-2-/-mice turn gray with the second hair follicle cycle, implicating a defect in redox-regulated melanin synthesis. The abnormalities in these loss of function mice argue that Bcl-2 is a death repressor molecule functioning in an antioxidant pathway.
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              Enforced BCL2 expression in B-lymphoid cells prolongs antibody responses and elicits autoimmune disease.

              The biological functions of the BCL2 gene were investigated in transgenic mice harboring human BCL2 cDNA under the control of an immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (E mu). Mice of a representative transgenic strain, E mu-bcl-2-22, had a great excess of B lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-secreting cells, and serum immunoglobulins, attributable to increased longevity of B-lineage cells. Pre-B and plasma cells as well as B cells exhibited prolonged survival in culture. Immunized animals produced an amplified and protracted antibody response. Within the first year of life, most mice spontaneously produced antibodies to nuclear antigens, and 60% developed kidney disease, diagnosed as immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus E mu-bcl-2-22 mice constitute a transgenic model for a systemic autoimmune disease resembling the human disorder systemic lupus erythematosus.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Kidney International
                Kidney International
                Springer Nature
                00852538
                August 1997
                August 1997
                : 52
                : 2
                : 538-558
                Article
                10.1038/ki.1997.365
                © 1997

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