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      Multiple Myo4 motors enhance ASH1 mRNA transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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      The Journal of Cell Biology

      The Rockefeller University Press

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          Abstract

          The myosin Myo4 is nonprocessive by itself, but when several motor subunits team up with She2 and She3, it forms an active RNP transport unit that moves ASH1 mRNA to the bud tip in dividing yeast.

          Abstract

          In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ASH1 mRNA is transported to the bud tip by the class V myosin Myo4. In vivo, Myo4 moves RNA in a rapid and continuous fashion, but in vitro Myo4 is a nonprocessive, monomeric motor that forms a complex with She3. To understand how nonprocessive motors generate continuous transport, we used a novel purification method to show that Myo4, She3, and the RNA-binding protein She2 are the sole major components of an active ribonucleoprotein transport unit. We demonstrate that a single localization element contains multiple copies of Myo4 and a tetramer of She2, which suggests that She2 may recruit multiple motors to an RNA. Furthermore, we show that increasing the number of Myo4–She3 molecules bound to ASH1 RNA in the absence of She2 increases the efficiency of RNA transport to the bud. Our data suggest that multiple, nonprocessive Myo4 motors can generate continuous transport of mRNA to the bud tip.

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          Most cited references 64

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          Additional modules for versatile and economical PCR-based gene deletion and modification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

          An important recent advance in the functional analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes is the development of the one-step PCR-mediated technique for deletion and modification of chromosomal genes. This method allows very rapid gene manipulations without requiring plasmid clones of the gene of interest. We describe here a new set of plasmids that serve as templates for the PCR synthesis of fragments that allow a variety of gene modifications. Using as selectable marker the S. cerevisiae TRP1 gene or modules containing the heterologous Schizosaccharomyces pombe his5+ or Escherichia coli kan(r) gene, these plasmids allow gene deletion, gene overexpression (using the regulatable GAL1 promoter), C- or N-terminal protein tagging [with GFP(S65T), GST, or the 3HA or 13Myc epitope], and partial N- or C-terminal deletions (with or without concomitant protein tagging). Because of the modular nature of the plasmids, they allow efficient and economical use of a small number of PCR primers for a wide variety of gene manipulations. Thus, these plasmids should further facilitate the rapid analysis of gene function in S. cerevisiae.
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            Global analysis of protein expression in yeast.

            The availability of complete genomic sequences and technologies that allow comprehensive analysis of global expression profiles of messenger RNA have greatly expanded our ability to monitor the internal state of a cell. Yet biological systems ultimately need to be explained in terms of the activity, regulation and modification of proteins--and the ubiquitous occurrence of post-transcriptional regulation makes mRNA an imperfect proxy for such information. To facilitate global protein analyses, we have created a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fusion library where each open reading frame is tagged with a high-affinity epitope and expressed from its natural chromosomal location. Through immunodetection of the common tag, we obtain a census of proteins expressed during log-phase growth and measurements of their absolute levels. We find that about 80% of the proteome is expressed during normal growth conditions, and, using additional sequence information, we systematically identify misannotated genes. The abundance of proteins ranges from fewer than 50 to more than 10(6) molecules per cell. Many of these molecules, including essential proteins and most transcription factors, are present at levels that are not readily detectable by other proteomic techniques nor predictable by mRNA levels or codon bias measurements.
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              The mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation and principles of its regulation.

              Protein synthesis is principally regulated at the initiation stage (rather than during elongation or termination), allowing rapid, reversible and spatial control of gene expression. Progress over recent years in determining the structures and activities of initiation factors, and in mapping their interactions in ribosomal initiation complexes, have advanced our understanding of the complex translation initiation process. These developments have provided a solid foundation for studying the regulation of translation initiation by mechanisms that include the modulation of initiation factor activity (which affects almost all scanning-dependent initiation) and through sequence-specific RNA-binding proteins and microRNAs (which affect individual mRNAs).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Cell Biol
                J. Cell Biol
                jcb
                The Journal of Cell Biology
                The Rockefeller University Press
                0021-9525
                1540-8140
                17 May 2010
                : 189
                : 4
                : 755-767
                Affiliations
                Department of Cell Biology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520
                Author notes
                Correspondence to Peter A. Takizawa: peter.takizawa@ 123456yale.edu
                Article
                200912011
                10.1083/jcb.200912011
                2872910
                20457760
                © 2010 Chung and Takizawa

                This article is distributed under the terms of an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike–No Mirror Sites license for the first six months after the publication date (see http://www.rupress.org/terms). After six months it is available under a Creative Commons License (Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported license, as described at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/).

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