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      Emergent Endovascular vs. Open Surgery Repair for Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: A Meta-Analysis

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      PLoS ONE

      Public Library of Science

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To systematically review studies comparing peri-operative mortality and length of hospital stay in patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to patients who underwent open surgical repair (OSR).

          Methods

          The Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched until Apr 30, 2013 using keywords such as abdominal aortic aneurysm, emergent, emergency, rupture, leaking, acute, endovascular, stent, graft, and endoscopic . The primary outcome was peri-operative mortality and the secondary outcome was length of hospital stay.

          Results

          A total of 18 studies (2 randomized controlled trials, 5 prospective studies, and 11 retrospective studies) with a total of 135,734 rAAA patients were included. rAAA patients who underwent EVAR had significantly lower peri-operative mortality compared to those who underwent OSR (overall OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.67, P<0.001). rAAA patients with EVAR also had a significantly shorter mean length of hospital stay compared to those with OSR (difference in mean length of stay ranged from −2.00 to −19.10 days, with the overall estimate being −5.25 days (95% CI = −9.23 to −1.26, P = 0.010). There was no publication bias and sensitivity analysis showed good reliability.

          Conclusions

          EVAR confers significant benefits in terms of peri-operative mortality and length of hospital stay. There is a need for more randomized controlled trials to compare outcomes of EVAR and OSR for rAAA.

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          Most cited references 40

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          Estimating the mean and variance from the median, range, and the size of a sample

          Background Usually the researchers performing meta-analysis of continuous outcomes from clinical trials need their mean value and the variance (or standard deviation) in order to pool data. However, sometimes the published reports of clinical trials only report the median, range and the size of the trial. Methods In this article we use simple and elementary inequalities and approximations in order to estimate the mean and the variance for such trials. Our estimation is distribution-free, i.e., it makes no assumption on the distribution of the underlying data. Results We found two simple formulas that estimate the mean using the values of the median (m), low and high end of the range (a and b, respectively), and n (the sample size). Using simulations, we show that median can be used to estimate mean when the sample size is larger than 25. For smaller samples our new formula, devised in this paper, should be used. We also estimated the variance of an unknown sample using the median, low and high end of the range, and the sample size. Our estimate is performing as the best estimate in our simulations for very small samples (n ≤ 15). For moderately sized samples (15 70), the formula range/6 gives the best estimator for the standard deviation (variance). We also include an illustrative example of the potential value of our method using reports from the Cochrane review on the role of erythropoietin in anemia due to malignancy. Conclusion Using these formulas, we hope to help meta-analysts use clinical trials in their analysis even when not all of the information is available and/or reported.
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            Endovascular versus open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm.

            Few data are available on the long-term outcome of endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm as compared with open repair. From 1999 through 2004 at 37 hospitals in the United Kingdom, we randomly assigned 1252 patients with large abdominal aortic aneurysms (> or = 5.5 cm in diameter) to undergo either endovascular or open repair; 626 patients were assigned to each group. Patients were followed for rates of death, graft-related complications, reinterventions, and resource use until the end of 2009. Logistic regression and Cox regression were used to compare outcomes in the two groups. The 30-day operative mortality was 1.8% in the endovascular-repair group and 4.3% in the open-repair group (adjusted odds ratio for endovascular repair as compared with open repair, 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.18 to 0.87; P=0.02). The endovascular-repair group had an early benefit with respect to aneurysm-related mortality, but the benefit was lost by the end of the study, at least partially because of fatal endograft ruptures (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.49; P=0.73). By the end of follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the rate of death from any cause (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.23; P=0.72). The rates of graft-related complications and reinterventions were higher with endovascular repair, and new complications occurred up to 8 years after randomization, contributing to higher overall costs. In this large, randomized trial, endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm was associated with a significantly lower operative mortality than open surgical repair. However, no differences were seen in total mortality or aneurysm-related mortality in the long term. Endovascular repair was associated with increased rates of graft-related complications and reinterventions and was more costly. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN55703451.) 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Transfemoral intraluminal graft implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms.

              This study reports on animal experimentation and initial clinical trials exploring the feasibility of exclusion of an abdominal aortic aneurysm by placement of an intraluminal, stent-anchored, Dacron prosthetic graft using retrograde cannulation of the common femoral artery under local or regional anesthesia. Experiments showed that when a balloon-expandable stent was sutured to the partially overlapping ends of a tubular, knitted Dacron graft, friction seals were created which fixed the ends of the graft to the vessel wall. This excludes the aneurysm from circulation and allows normal flow through the graft lumen. Initial treatment in five patients with serious co-morbidities is described. Each patient had an individually tailored balloon diameter and diameter and length of their Dacron graft. Standard stents were used and the diameter of the stent-graft was determined by sonography, computed tomography, and arteriography. In three of them a cephalic stent was used without a distal stent. In two other patients both ends of the Dacron tubular stent were attached to stents using a one-third stent overlap. In these latter two, once the proximal neck of the aneurysm was reached, the sheath was withdrawn and the cephalic balloon inflated with a saline/contrast solution. The catheter was gently removed caudally towards the arterial entry site in the groin to keep tension on the graft, and the second balloon inflated so as to deploy the second stent. Four of the five patients had heparin reversal at the end of the procedure. We are encouraged by this early experience, but believe that further developments and more clinical trials are needed before this technique becomes widely used.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                The Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xinqiao Hospital, the Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China
                Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Italy
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: YbX CQ. Performed the experiments: CQ LC. Analyzed the data: CQ LC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: YbX LC. Wrote the paper: CQ.

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2014
                31 January 2014
                : 9
                : 1
                3909181 PONE-D-13-40846 10.1371/journal.pone.0087465

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Counts
                Pages: 9
                Funding
                The authors have no support or funding to report.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Biology
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Cardiovascular System
                Cardiovascular Anatomy
                Medicine
                Anatomy and Physiology
                Comparative Anatomy
                Cardiovascular System
                Cardiovascular
                Clinical Research Design
                Meta-Analyses
                Surgery
                Cardiovascular Surgery
                General Surgery

                Uncategorized

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