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      Echocardiographic features of accessory mitral valve tissue presenting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in a dog


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          In a 3-year-old Samoyed, aortic bulging was found on radiography during a general check-up. On echocardiography, turbulent flow was found in left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) with high velocity (6.1 m/s). A linear structure was attached to the interventricular septum and connected to the chordae tendineae reaching the papillary muscle. A part of the structure moved during cardiac cycle, similar to mitral motion. This dog was diagnosed with LVOT obstruction caused by accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT). This is the first report of AMVT in veterinary medicine. AMVT should be considered as a possible cause of LVOT obstruction in dogs.

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          Accessory mitral valve in an adult population: the role of echocardiography in diagnosis and management.

          Accessory mitral valve is a rare congenital abnormality and is an unusual cause for subvalvular left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. It is detected first in children and is very rarely noticed in adults. The most common clinical presentation is symptomatic LVOT obstruction. We present a case series of 5 adult patients with varying clinical presentations in which the accessory mitral valve was diagnosed using echocardiography. Three patients presented with varying degrees of symptomatic LVOT obstruction, one presented with recurrent transient ischemic attack and stroke, and one patient was incidentally diagnosed during echocardiography to exclude endocarditis. Accessory mitral valve should be suggested in patients with LVOT obstruction.
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            Left ventricular false tendons: anatomic, echocardiographic, and pathophysiologic insights.

            Left ventricular (LV) false tendons are chordlike structures that traverse the LV cavity. They attach to the septum, to the papillary muscles, or to the free wall of the ventricle but not to the mitral valve. They are found in approximately half of human hearts examined at autopsy. Although it has been more than 100 years since their initial description, the functional significance of these structures remains largely unexplored. It has been suggested that they retard LV remodeling by tethering the walls to which they are attached, but there are few data to substantiate this. Some studies have suggested that false tendons reduce the severity of functional mitral regurgitation by stabilizing the position of the papillary muscles as the left ventricle enlarges. LV false tendons may also have deleterious effects and have been implicated in promoting membrane formation in discrete subaortic stenosis. This article reviews current understanding of the anatomy, echocardiographic characteristics, and pathophysiology of these structures.
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              Accessory mitral valve tissue: an updated review of the literature.

              Accessory mitral valve tissue (AMVT) is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly sometimes responsible for left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. It is diagnosed during both neonate-childhood and adult periods in patients usually symptomatic for dyspnoea, chest pain, palpitations, fatigue, or syncope. Nevertheless, AMVT is often an incidental finding. AMVT is most often associated with other cardiac and vascular congenital malformations, such as septal defects and transposition of the great arteries. Surgery is indicated only in cases of significant LVOT obstruction and in patients undergoing correction of other cardiac malformations or exploration of an intracardiac mass. Two-dimensional echocardiography, both transthoracic and transoesophageal, is considered the main imaging modality for AMVT diagnosis and patient follow-up. The recent introduction of three-dimensional echocardiography allows a more realistic characterization of this entity. We present three clinical cases in which AMVT was incidentally diagnosed during standard echocardiography and an updated review of the literature highlighting the usefulness of echocardiography for AMVT morphological and functional characterization as well as the most relevant clinical implications due to its discovery.

                Author and article information

                J Vet Sci
                J Vet Sci
                Journal of Veterinary Science
                The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
                July 2021
                05 July 2021
                : 22
                : 4
                Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jihye Choi. Department of Veterinary Medical Imaging, College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonnam National University, 77 Yongbong-ro, Buk-gu, Gwangju 61186, Korea. imsono@ 123456jnu.ac.kr
                © 2021 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Funded by: National Research Foundation of Korea, CrossRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100003725;
                Award ID: NRF-2021R1A2C200573011
                Case Report
                Medical Imaging

                Veterinary medicine

                chordae tendineae, dog, echocardiography, mitral valve, papillary muscle


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