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      Three new species of the ‘ Geophagus’ brasiliensis species group from the northeast Brazil (Cichlidae, Geophagini)

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      Zoosystematics and Evolution

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Morphological characters and phylogenetic trees generated by analyses of segments of two mitochondrial genes cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase I support recognition of three new species of the ‘Geophagus’ brasiliensis species group from coastal basins of northeast Brazil. All new species were diagnosed by exclusive morphological characters and exclusive nucleotide transformations. Geophagus rufomarginatus sp. n., from the Rio Buranhém Basin, is distinguished from all other species of the group by dorsal-fin lappets with red edges, the presence of longitudinal series of small light blue spots between the anal-fin spines and rays, and non-denticulated gill-rakers; it is closely related to G. brasiliensis and G. iporangensis. Geophagus multiocellus sp. n., from the Rio de Contas Basin, is distinguished from all other species of the group by having small pale blue spots with minute bright blue dots at their centres, that are often vertically coalesced to form short bars on the caudal fin. Geophagus santosi sp. n., from the Rio Mariana Basin, is distinguished from all other species of the group by having blue stripes parallel to the dorsal and anal fin rays on their longest portions. Geophagus multiocellus and G. santosi belong to the same clade of G. itapicuruensis. The clade composed by the Rio Paraguaçu Basin species was recovered as the sister group of the other species of the ‘G.’ brasiliensis species group.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Multiple sequence alignment with the Clustal series of programs.

           R Chenna (2003)
          The Clustal series of programs are widely used in molecular biology for the multiple alignment of both nucleic acid and protein sequences and for preparing phylogenetic trees. The popularity of the programs depends on a number of factors, including not only the accuracy of the results, but also the robustness, portability and user-friendliness of the programs. New features include NEXUS and FASTA format output, printing range numbers and faster tree calculation. Although, Clustal was originally developed to run on a local computer, numerous Web servers have been set up, notably at the EBI (European Bioinformatics Institute) (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/clustalw/).
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            Biogeographic areas and transition zones of Latin America and the Caribbean islands based on panbiogeographic and cladistic analyses of the entomofauna.

             Juan Morrone (2005)
            Track and cladistic biogeographic analyses based on insect taxa are used as a framework to interpret patterns of the Latin American and Caribbean entomofauna by identifying biogeographic areas on the basis of endemicity and arranging them hierarchically in a system of regions, subregions, dominions, and provinces. The Nearctic region, inhabited by Holarctic insect taxa, comprises five provinces: California, Baja California, Sonora, Mexican Plateau, and Tamaulipas. The Mexican transition zone comprises five provinces: Sierra Madre Occidental, Sierra Madre Oriental, Transmexican Volcanic Belt, Balsas Basin, and Sierra Madre del Sur. The Neotropical region, which harbors many insect taxa with close relatives in the tropical areas of the Old World, comprises four subregions: Caribbean, Amazonian, Chacoan, and Parana. The South American transition zone comprises five provinces: North Andean Paramo, Coastal Peruvian Desert, Puna, Atacama, Prepuna, and Monte. The Andean region, which harbors insect taxa with close relatives in the Austral continents, comprises three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic, and Patagonian.
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              Delimiting species using DNA and morphological variation and discordant species limits in spiny lizards (Sceloporus).

              Haplotype phylogenies based on DNA sequence data are increasingly being used to test traditional species-level taxonomies based on morphology. However, few studies have critically compared species limits based on morphological and DNA data, and the methods used to delimit species using either type of data are only rarely explained. In this paper, we review three approaches for species delimitation (tree-based with DNA data and tree-based and character-based with morphological data) and propose explicit protocols for each. We then compare species limits inferred from these approaches, using morphological and mtDNA data for the Yarrow's spiny lizard (Sceloporus jarrovii), a traditionally polytypic species from the southwestern United States and Mexico. All three approaches support division of S. jarrovii into five species, but only two species are the same among the three approaches. We find the greatest support for the five species that are delimited based on mtDNA data, and we argue that mtDNA data may have important (and previously unappreciated) advantages for species delimitation. Because different data and approaches can disagree so extensively, our results demonstrate that the methodology of species delimitation is a critical issue in systematics.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Zoosystematics and Evolution
                ZSE
                Pensoft Publishers
                1860-0743
                1435-1935
                July 06 2018
                July 06 2018
                : 94
                : 2
                : 325-337
                Article
                10.3897/zse.94.22685
                © 2018

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