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      Quantum entanglement

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          Abstract

          All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Schr\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and dense coding. However, it appeared that this new resource is very complex and difficult to detect. Being usually fragile to environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying. In particular, the authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via Bell inequalities, entropic inequalities, entanglement witnesses, quantum cryptography and point out some interrelations. They also discuss a basic role of entanglement in quantum communication within distant labs paradigm and stress some peculiarities such as irreversibility of entanglement manipulations including its extremal form - bound entanglement phenomenon. A basic role of entanglement witnesses in detection of entanglement is emphasized.

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          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Quantum entanglement

          All our former experience with application of quantum theory seems to say: {\it what is predicted by quantum formalism must occur in laboratory}. But the essence of quantum formalism - entanglement, recognized by Einstein, Podolsky, Rosen and Schr\"odinger - waited over 70 years to enter to laboratories as a new resource as real as energy. This holistic property of compound quantum systems, which involves nonclassical correlations between subsystems, is a potential for many quantum processes, including ``canonical'' ones: quantum cryptography, quantum teleportation and dense coding. However, it appeared that this new resource is very complex and difficult to detect. Being usually fragile to environment, it is robust against conceptual and mathematical tools, the task of which is to decipher its rich structure. This article reviews basic aspects of entanglement including its characterization, detection, distillation and quantifying. In particular, the authors discuss various manifestations of entanglement via Bell inequalities, entropic inequalities, entanglement witnesses, quantum cryptography and point out some interrelations. They also discuss a basic role of entanglement in quantum communication within distant labs paradigm and stress some peculiarities such as irreversibility of entanglement manipulations including its extremal form - bound entanglement phenomenon. A basic role of entanglement witnesses in detection of entanglement is emphasized.
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            • Record: found
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            Entanglement of Formation of an Arbitrary State of Two Qubits

            The entanglement of a pure state of a pair of quantum systems is defined as the entropy of either member of the pair. The entanglement of formation of a mixed state is defined as the minimum average entanglement of an ensemble of pure states that represents the given mixed state. An earlier paper [Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 5022 (1997)] conjectured an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of a pair of binary quantum objects (qubits) as a function of their density matrix, and proved the formula to be true for a special class of mixed states. The present paper extends the proof to arbitrary states of this system and shows how to construct entanglement-minimizing pure-state decompositions.
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              Mixed State Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction

              Entanglement purification protocols (EPP) and quantum error-correcting codes (QECC) provide two ways of protecting quantum states from interaction with the environment. In an EPP, perfectly entangled pure states are extracted, with some yield D, from a mixed state M shared by two parties; with a QECC, an arbi- trary quantum state \(|\xi\rangle\) can be transmitted at some rate Q through a noisy channel \(\chi\) without degradation. We prove that an EPP involving one- way classical communication and acting on mixed state \(\hat{M}(\chi)\) (obtained by sharing halves of EPR pairs through a channel \(\chi\)) yields a QECC on \(\chi\) with rate \(Q=D\), and vice versa. We compare the amount of entanglement E(M) required to prepare a mixed state M by local actions with the amounts \(D_1(M)\) and \(D_2(M)\) that can be locally distilled from it by EPPs using one- and two-way classical communication respectively, and give an exact expression for \(E(M)\) when \(M\) is Bell-diagonal. While EPPs require classical communica- tion, QECCs do not, and we prove Q is not increased by adding one-way classical communication. However, both D and Q can be increased by adding two-way com- munication. We show that certain noisy quantum channels, for example a 50% depolarizing channel, can be used for reliable transmission of quantum states if two-way communication is available, but cannot be used if only one-way com- munication is available. We exhibit a family of codes based on universal hash- ing able toachieve an asymptotic \(Q\) (or \(D\)) of 1-S for simple noise models, where S is the error entropy. We also obtain a specific, simple 5-bit single- error-correcting quantum block code. We prove that {\em iff} a QECC results in high fidelity for the case of no error the QECC can be recast into a form where the encoder is the matrix inverse of the decoder.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                26 February 2007
                2007-04-20
                Article
                10.1103/RevModPhys.81.865
                quant-ph/0702225
                Custom metadata
                Rev.Mod.Phys.81:865-942,2009
                110 pages, 3 figures, ReVTex4, Improved (slightly extended) presentation, updated references, minor changes, submitted to Rev. Mod. Phys.
                quant-ph

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