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The Effects of Various Amendments on Trace Element Stabilization in Acidic, Neutral, and Alkali Soil with Similar Pollution Index

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      Abstract

      Many studies have examined the application of soil amendments, including pH change-induced immobilizers, adsorbents, and organic materials, for soil remediation. This study evaluated the effects of various amendments on trace element stabilization and phytotoxicity, depending on the initial soil pH in acid, neutral, and alkali conditions. As in all types of soils, Fe and Ca were well stabilized on adsorption sites. There was an effect from pH control or adsorption mechanisms on the stabilization of cationic trace elements from inorganic amendments in acidic and neutral soil. Furthermore, acid mine drainage sludge has shown great potential for stabilizing most trace elements. In a phytotoxicity test, the ratio of the bioavailable fraction to the pseudo-total fraction significantly affected the uptake of trace elements by bok choy. While inorganic amendments efficiently decreased the bioavailability of trace elements, significant effects from organic amendments were not noticeable due to the short-term cultivation period. Therefore, the application of organic amendments for stabilizing trace elements in agricultural soil requires further study.

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      The influence of pH and organic matter content in paddy soil on heavy metal availability and their uptake by rice plants.

      The experiments were done to investigate the effect of soil pH and organic matter content on EDTA-extractable heavy metal contents in soils and heavy metal concentrations in rice straw and grains. EDTA-extractable Cr contents in soils and concentrations in rice tissues were negatively correlated with soil pH, but positively correlated with organic matter content. The combination of soil pH and organic matter content would produce the more precise regression models for estimation of EDTA-Cu, Pb and Zn contents in soils, demonstrating the distinct effect of the two factors on the availability of these heavy metals in soils. Soil pH greatly affected heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. Furthermore, inclusion of other soil properties in the stepwise regression analysis improved the regression models for predicting straw Fe and grain Zn concentrations, indicating that other soil properties should be taken into consideration for precise predicting of heavy metal concentrations in rice plants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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        Current approaches to the revegetation and reclamation of metalliferous mine wastes.

        Abandoned metalliferous mine wastes can result in severe pollution and have aesthetic impacts on the local environment. Use of a vegetation cover gives a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable method of stabilising and reclaiming wastes such as mine-spoils and tailings. Many characteristics of metalliferous wastes are often inimical to successful vegetation establishment, most notably phytotoxic levels of residual heavy metals, low nutrient status and poor physical structure of the substratum. Current approaches to revegetation and reclamation involve both ameliorative and adaptive strategies to allow plant establishment and encourage subsequent vegetation development. Different techniques of revegetation are available for temperate and arid, subtropical regions depending on the characteristics of the waste. These include direct seeding with commercially available plants, use of cover and barrier systems and the enhancement of natural revegetation processes.
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          Effects of compost and phosphate amendments on arsenic mobility in soils and arsenic uptake by the hyperaccumulator, Pteris vittata L.

          Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, has shown the potential to remediate As-contaminated soils. This study investigated the effects of soil amendments on the leachability of As from soils and As uptake by Chinese brake fern. The ferns were grown for 12 weeks in a chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) contaminated soil or in As spiked contaminated (ASC) soil. Soils were treated with phosphate rock, municipal solid waste, or biosolid compost. Phosphate amendments significantly enhanced plant As uptake from the two tested soils with frond As concentrations increasing up to 265% relative to the control. After 12 weeks, plants grown in phosphate-amended soil removed >8% of soil As. Replacement of As by P from the soil binding sites was responsible for the enhanced mobility of As and subsequent increased plant uptake. Compost additions facilitated As uptake from the CCA soil, but decreased As uptake from the ASC soil. Elevated As uptake in the compost-treated CCA soil was related to the increase of soil water-soluble As and As(V) transformation into As(III). Reduced As uptake in the ASC soil may be attributed to As adsorption to the compost. Chinese brake fern took up As mainly from the iron-bound fraction in the CCA soil and from the water-soluble/exchangeable As in the ASC soil. Without ferns for As adsorption, compost and phosphate amendments increased As leaching from the CCA soil, but had decreased leaching with ferns when compared to the control. For the ASC soil, treatments reduced As leaching regardless of fern presence. This study suggest that growing Chinese brake fern in conjunction with phosphate amendments increases the effectiveness of remediating As-contaminated soils, by increasing As uptake and decreasing As leaching.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [2 ]Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
            [3 ]Soil Remediation Team, Mine Reclamation Corporation, Wonju, Republic of Korea
            University of Vigo, SPAIN
            Author notes

            Competing Interests: Author SH Lee received support in the form of salary from Mine Reclamation Corporation, Wonju, Republic of Korea, a commercial company. This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.

            • Conceptualization: MSK SHL JGK.

            • Data curation: MSK HG Min.

            • Formal analysis: MSK HGM SHL.

            • Funding acquisition: JGK.

            • Investigation: MSK SHL.

            • Methodology: MSK HGM SHL JGK.

            • Project administration: JGK.

            • Resources: MSK HGM, SHL JGK.

            • Software: HGM.

            • Supervision: JGK.

            • Validation: MSK SHL.

            • Visualization: MSK HGM.

            • Writing – original draft: MSK.

            • Writing – review & editing: HGM SHL JGK.

            Contributors
            Role: Editor
            Journal
            PLoS One
            PLoS ONE
            plos
            plosone
            PLoS ONE
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
            1932-6203
            11 November 2016
            2016
            : 11
            : 11
            27835687
            5106014
            10.1371/journal.pone.0166335
            PONE-D-16-37194
            (Editor)
            © 2016 Kim et al

            This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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            Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Pages: 12
            Product
            Funding
            Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea;
            Award ID: 2015R1D1A1A01057594
            Award Recipient :
            This study was funded by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) [2015R1D1A1A01057594] http://nrf.re.kr/nrf_tot_cms/index.jsp?pmi-sso-return2=none (to MS Kim). Mine Reclamation Corporation, Wonju, Republic of Korea, a commercial company, provided support in the form of salaries for authors SH Lee, but did not have any additional role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The specific roles of these authors are articulated in the author contribution section.
            Categories
            Research Article
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Analytical Chemistry
            Trace Elements
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Agriculture
            Agricultural Soil Science
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Soil Science
            Agricultural Soil Science
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Environmental Chemistry
            Soil Chemistry
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Environmental Chemistry
            Soil Chemistry
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Soil Science
            Soil Chemistry
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Physical Chemistry
            Sorption
            Adsorption
            Physical Sciences
            Materials Science
            Materials by Structure
            Sludge
            Biology and Life Sciences
            Ecology
            Community Ecology
            Ecological Remediation
            Ecology and Environmental Sciences
            Ecology
            Community Ecology
            Ecological Remediation
            Engineering and Technology
            Environmental Engineering
            Pollution
            Physical Sciences
            Chemistry
            Chemical Compounds
            Acids
            Custom metadata
            All relevant data are within the paper.

            Uncategorized

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